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Programming languages, also called computer languages or computer programming languages, are standard instructions for giving commands to a computer. This programming language is a set of syntax and semantic rules that are used to define computer programs. This language allows a programmer to determine exactly which data will be processed by a computer, how this data will be stored / forwarded, and what type of steps exactly will be taken in various situations.
According to the level of proximity to a computer machine, a programming language consists

machine language

1) Machine Language, which gives commands to computers using binary language codes, for example 01100101100110
2) Low-level language, or known as assembly language (English Assembly), which gives commands to computers using short codes (mnemonic codes), for example machine_ codes | MOV, SUB, CMP, JMP, JGE, JL, LOOP, etc.
3) Intermediate Level Language, which is a computer language that uses a mixture of instructions in human language words (see examples of High Level Language below) and symbolic instructions, for example {,},?, <<, >>, &&, | |, etc.
4) High-level Language, which is a computer language that uses instructions derived from elements of human language words, for example begin, end, if, for, while, and, or, etc. In order for computers to understand human languages, compiler or interpreter programs are needed.

Most programming languages are classified as High Level Language, only C language is classified as Intermediate Level Language and Assembly which is Low Level Language.

Function of Programming Languages

The function of programming languages is in order the computer to process data in accordance with the flow of thought we want. The output of the programming language is in the form of a program / application. Examples are programs used by cashiers in malls or supermarkets, use of traffic lights on highways, etc. There are a lot of Programming Languages in the world, about computer science and technology today. Its development follows the high innovations carried out in the world of technology. Examples of programming languages that we know are, among others, for creating game applications, antivirus, web, and other technologies. Computer programming languages that we know are Java, Visual Basic, C ++, C, Cobol, PHP, .Net, and hundreds of other languages. But of course the use of this language must be adapted to the functions and devices that use it.

In general, programming languages are divided into 4 groups, namely:

• Object Oriented Language (Visual dBase, Visual FoxPro, Delphi, Visual C)
• High Level Language (like Pascal and Basic)
• Middle Level Language (like C language), and
• Low Level Language (like Assembly language)

Programming Language Levels According to the level of difficulty in learning and implementing, programming languages can be divided into several types:

a. High-Level Languages Programming languages enter this level because they approach human languages. For example, Basic, Visual Basic, Pascal, Java, PHP.
b. Intermediate Level Language Called intermediate level because it can enter into high or low level languages. For example the language C.
c. Low Level Languages Programming languages enter this level because the language is still far from human language. For example Assembly language.

low level vs high level programming language

The Basic Structure of a Programming Language makes the program certainly related to the basic structure of a programming language, the basic logic of programming, programming algorithms, and so on. All of this, of course we have to learn precisely and carefully because learning programming is an activity to get used to making programs, just as we get used to using language to speak. Learning a new language requires us to use the language often and practice it as often and as much as possible. In addition to not forgetting, this habituation is useful so that someone can say the exact words that are being learned. In addition, when someone is learning to use a new language, of course the person must learn to arrange the right words, so that what is conveyed can be communicated perfectly. This also applies to people who are learning to write program lines, using language choices that are appropriate to them. In order to use the programming language in accordance with what is desired, we must understand the basic structure of the appropriate programming language to use. The more choices of programming languages learned, the more structure must be learned. Each programming language has a basic structure of different programming languages, but the structure can be included in several categories. Some basic categories of programming languages that beginners can learn are

a. Sequence structure It is the most basic algorithm structure which contains sequentially processed series of instructions, which means that it is done one by one, starting from the first instruction until the last instruction means starting from the first step, then the second, third, and so on until the end. Basically, a program does run a process from the basic structure like this.
b. Repetition Structure. Sometimes, when running a program, we have to run a command repeatedly, so that the program can run continuously. This structure can be the right choice to make a program run the command lines repeatedly. By using the basic structure of this programming language, a program maker can set commands in his program so that it runs repeatedly to a condition where the conditions for repetition are no longer met. There are several looping functions that can be used to structure this program, such as For, While, and While-do in C ++. These three functions can be used to create a program to run the command lines under certain conditions.
c. The Branching Structure makes the program make a choice in executing commands according to certain conditions. Program makers can use this structure to create a program with several decision choices that are tailored to the desired terms or conditions. For example, when we want to see whether we pass or not in a subject, the logic is that if we score more than 70 then we graduate, and if less than 70 then we don’t pass. In this case, we can use this branching structure. In the above conditions, we can use the If-Else or Switch Case function in the C programming language for the Arduino board. Creating a program is an activity of choosing which structure is right for the program. So a program maker must know the various types of basic structure of programming languages, as explained above. After knowing the various structures and functions that can be used, the program maker can choose and determine which structure is right for the program to be mad with the right structure, the program created will be as desired.

Thank you for your attention. That’s all from me . see you later. 😊


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