Virtual reality is a technology that allows users to interact with existing environments in the virtual world that are simulated by a computer, so that users feel they are in that environment. In Indonesian virtual reality is known as realitas maya . The main advantage of virtual reality is the experience that makes users feel the sensation of the real world in cyberspace. Even the development of virtual reality technology now allows not only the sense of sight and hearing to feel the real sensations of the virtual world of virtual reality, but also other senses.

Virtual reality technology has actually been widely applied in several industrial sectors such as medicine, aviation, education, architects, military, entertainment and so on. Virtual reality is very helpful in simulating something that is difficult to present directly in the real world. As is the case for the military field, instead of sending soldiers directly into the battlefield as a training exercise, virtual reality can present a virtual simulation of war. The soldiers can feel the sensation of being in a real battlefield with virtual reality. Surely this can be more practical and more economical.

The use of virtual reality is also very helpful in the field of aviation. By using virtual reality, pilots can practice to fly planes virtually. Pilots can feel the sensation of flying an airplane without actually having to fly a real airplane. And of course it will avoid the risk of accidents during training. The earliest virtual reality technology was the Aspen Cinema Map, created by MIT in 1977. The program was a rough simulation of the city of Aspen in Colorado, where users could wander in one of three styles: summer, winter, and polygon . The first two things have been based on photographs, because the researchers actually photographed every possible movement through the view of a big city road in both seasons, and the third was a basic 3-dimensional model of a big city. In the late 1980s the term “Virtual Reality” was popularized by Jaron Lanier, one of the modern pioneers of the field. Lanier, who had founded the VPL Research company in 1985, had developed and built the famous “sunglasses and gloves” system at that time. In general, VR has been in development for quite some time, precisely starting from the 1800s. Here is displayed the history of VR from the beginning to the present.

• 1800s – An idea emerged to create an alternative reality as the practice of photography emerged.
• 1838 – First stereoscope is found that uses two twin mirrors to project an image.
• 1839 – The stereoscope was developed into a View-Master and was patented a century later in 1939.
• 1956 – Morton Heilig who has a background in the Hollywood Motion Picture industry begins to want people to be able to feel the atmosphere like entering a film. A Sensorama simulation was created that can make its users feel the atmosphere of an urban environment like riding a motorcycle. Already equipped with multisensor stimulation, so users are able to see the road, hear the motor engine sound, feel the vibration of the motor, and smell the engine of a motor in a world that is designed technology.
• 1960 – Morton Heilig then patents a device called the Telesphere Mask. Many investors are then interested in working together.
• Mid 1980 – The term “virtual reality” began to be used. Jaron Lanier, founder of VPL Research, began developing virtual reality equipment, including goggles (goggles) and gloves that one needs to experience VR.
• Currently – After six decades of development with the help of investor funds, VR can now be widely enjoyed at economical prices, using high-quality equipment that is easily accessible.

Virtual reality works by manipulating the human brain so as to feel a variety of virtual things that feel like the real thing. In a way, virtual reality is the process of erasing the real world around humans, then makes the user feel led into a virtual world that is completely in contact with the real world. To be able to do this, certainly requires a variety of enhancements. At the very least, if you want to feel into the virtual reality world, then you need a VR headset, such as what is now commonly found on the market is the Oculus Rift or Samsung Gear VR.

Arrangement of components on a VR device
Arrangement of components on a VR device In plain view, this VR headset is shaped like a diving goggle, but with a closed lens. This diving-like section is called the VR box, which is a place to put a smartphone that functions to project a virtual image. VR that uses this smartphone is a standard version of the VR device. Unlike for example with a VR headset that already uses advanced technology such as the Oculus Rift, inside it is no longer using a smartphone, but there is already a screen that displays video and virtual reality images that can also be connected to a computer using Bluetooth. There are 4 important elements in virtual reality.
The 4 elements are as follows:
1. Virtual world, a content that creates a virtual world in the form of screenplay and script.
2. Immersion, a sensation that brings virtual reality technology users to feel in a real environment that is actually fictitious. Immersion is divided into 3 types, namely:
• Mental immersion, makes the mental user feel like being in a real environment.
• Physical immersion, makes physical users feel the atmosphere around the environment created by the virtual reality.
• Mentally immersed, giving users a sensation to dissolve in an environment that is generated by virtual reality.
3. Sensory feedback functions to convey information from the virtual world to the senses of its users. These elements include visual (sight), audio (hearing) and touch.
4. Interactivity whose job is to respond to the actions of users, so users can interact directly in a fictitious field or virtual world. The user sees a pseudo world which is actually dynamic images. Through headphones or speakers, listeners will hear realistic sounds. Through a headset, glove, and walker, all user movements are monitored by a system that will give an appropriate reaction so that the user feels as if he is in a real situation, both physically and psychologically.

Virtual reality itself has a negative effect, Cybersickness. Cybersickness is a disorder that is often experienced in the use of virtual reality. Patients will feel eye strain and even accompanied by dizziness. Sometimes the patient is psychologically still carried away in a false atmosphere even though the patient has actually returned to the real world. So, this disorder should not be underestimated because sufferers are usually difficult to return to the real world and always dreamy in the pseudo world.

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