Computer network (network) is a system consisting of computers designed to be able to share resources (printers, CPUs), communicate (e-mail, instant messages), and be able to access information (web browser). The purpose of computer networks is that each computer part of a computer network can request and provide services. The party requesting / receiving the service is called a client and the one who provides / sends the service is called a server. This design is called a client-server system. This system is used by most computer network applications.
The following are various kinds of computer networks:
- LAN ( Local Area Network )
- MAN ( Metropolitan Area Network )
- WAN ( Wide Area Network )
- PAN ( Personal Area Network )
1 LAN (Local Area Network )
Local Area Network or LAN, is a type of computer network that covers the local area. By using a variety of simple and popular network devices, such as UTP (Unshielded Twisted-Pair) Cables, Hubs, Switches, Routers, and others.
LAN has the following characteristics:
- Having a higher data rate.
- Covers a narrower geographical area.
- Does not require telecommunications lines leased from telecommunications operators.
The advantages of using LAN Computer Network Types are:
- More economical in spending operational costs
- More economical in the use of cables
- Data transfer between nodes and computers is faster because it covers a narrow or local area
- Does not require a telecommunications operator to create a LAN network.
The disadvantage of using this type of LAN network is
- Network coverage is narrower
- Communicating outside the network becomes more difficult
- Data transfer coverage area is not so broad.
Examples of LAN networks such as computers that are connected to each other at school, at a company, Internet cafe, and between neighboring homes that still cover the LAN area.
2 MAN ( Metropolitan Area Network )
Metropolitan Area Network, or MAN, is a broader, sophisticated computer network than LAN Computer Types. Called the Metropolitan Area Network because this network is used to connect computer networks from one city to another. To create a MAN network, it is usually necessary to have a telecommunications operator to connect between computer networks.
MAN has the following characteristics:
- Network in a city with high-speed data transfer
- Connecting various locations, such as; Campus, office, government, etc.
- Combination of several LANs.
- Has a range of 10 to 50 km
The advantages of MAN Computer Networks include
- Wider network area coverage
- More efficient for communication
- Make it easier in terms of doing business
- Security in the network for the better.
Disadvantages from MAN Computer Networks include
- Use more operational costs
- Can be the target of operations by Crackers for personal gain
- To improve the MAN network takes quite a long time.
Examples: the network between cities or regions and also modern mall networks that are interconnected between cities.
3. WAN ( Wide Area Network )
Wide Area Network or WAN, a Computer Network that is wider and more sophisticated than LAN and MAN Computer Networks. WAN networks are used to connect a network with other countries or from one continent to another.
WAN networks can consist of various Types of LAN and WAN Computer Networks because of the wide coverage area of the WAN Computer Network Types. WAN networks, usually using fiber optic cables and implanting them in the ground or passing under the sea.
WAN has the following characteristics:
- Computer network that covers a large area
- Computer networks that require routers and public communication channels.
- Used to connect one local area network with another local network, so that users or computers in one location can communicate with users and computers in other locations
Advantages of WAN Computer Network include:
- The coverage of the network area is wider than the LAN and MAN Computer Network Types
- Exchange of information becomes more confidential and directed because communication from one country to another requires more security
- Easier to develop and facilitate business.
The disadvantages of this type of WAN Network include:
- Operational costs needed to be more
- Very vulnerable to the danger of theft of important data
- Treatment for WAN networks becomes more severe.
4. PAN (Personal Area Network)
Personal area network (PAN) is a communication network of one device with other devices in a very short distance, only a few meters. The PAN network is an access point for various personal devices such as telephone computers, TV home security systems that are based on data communications, as well as public communication devices such as the internet.
Advantages of the PAN Network are:
- Connecting computer devices
- As a medium of communication between the devices themselves (personal communication)
Example of Using a PAN Network
- Connect the HP to the Laptop using Bluetooth.
- Connecting a mouse with a Laptop using Bluetooth.
- Connecting the Printer with a Laptop using Bluetooth
Control on the PAN network is carried out with personal authority, and for Technologies that are used include Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) and Bluetooth. This PAN network is connected via buses on computers, such as USB and Firewire.
WPAN (Wireless Personal Area Network )
WPAN is wireless private area network for networks that are centered around individual interconnecting devices from work – where the connection is wireless. Generally, wireless personal area networks use several technologies that enable communication within about 10 meters.
The advantages of WPAN include:
- can serve all interconnections to the computer
- Communicate normally on devices that have a lot of people
The key concept in WPAN technology is known as “deep plugging”. In an ideal scenario, if two WPAN-equipped devices become close (within a few meters of each other) or within a few kilometers of a central server, they can communicate as if connected by cables. Another important feature is the ability of each to lock the device from other devices that are selective, needing to prevent unauthorized interference or access to information.
Intranet is a computer network based on TCP / IP protocols such as the internet only used in internal companies, offices, and even internet cafes (WARNET) can be categorized as Intranet. Intranet can communicate with one another through an Internet connection that provides the backbone of long distance communication.
Actually, an Intranet does not need an external connection to the Internet to function properly. Intranet uses all TCP / IP protocols TCP / IP protocol, IP address, and other protocols), clients and servers. HTTP protocol and several other Internet protocols (FTP, POP3, or SMTP) are generally protocol components that are often used. an intranet can be understood as a “personal version of the Internet network”, or as a version of the Internet owned by an organization.
protocol, IP address, and other protocols), clients and servers. HTTP protocol and several other Internet protocols (FTP, POP3, or SMTP) are generally protocol components that are often used. an intranet can be understood as a “personal version of the Internet network”, or as a version of the Internet owned by an organization.
The advantages of Intranet include:
- Make companies / institutions more efficient
- Make companies / institutions become more competitive in the world
The internet can be interpreted as a large and wide global computer network, which connects computer users from one country to another throughout the world, in which there are various information resources ranging from static to dynamic and interactive.