An OS or operating system plays a very important role in a computer. As a

operating system software seems to be a container to regulate the existence of software or applications and

hardware components that are in the computer. In this article we will discuss about

UNIX understanding along with a brief history of how this operating system was formed.

Unlike Windows or Linux which is more widely known by the general public, existence

UNIX is as if only a few are aware of it. Though the Linux operating system basically

adopted UNIX in the manufacturing process.

Besides Linux there are actually many types of other operating systems that are adopted

UNIX. Many parties are indeed interested in developing UNIX by working

which is certainly different too. UNIX Definition

UNIX is an operating system (OS) that was developed in 1965 through a project

previously called Multiplexed Information and Computing Service or abbreviated as Multics

with the hope that UNIX will become an operating system that can do multitasking, portable and can

used by more than one user (multiuser). This project is fully funded by the Department

American Defense (DARPA).

Most users want to use the UNIX operating system as a server and computer

workstation. This is because the characteristics of UNIX are portable, multiuser and multitasking

its users. The purpose of the server is a computer system that handles multiple computers

another, can be in the form of an ethernet network or the internet.

But in its use as a workstation at this time is quite rare because of the price

quite expensive. Actually in addition to UNIX there is also a Windows Server that is no less performance,

but in terms of reliability and effectiveness UNIX is still better because it always experiences

development, for example is GNU / Linux. In this article we will emphasize more

discussion towards the understanding of UNIX itself and its characteristics and the history of development.

UNIX History

Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie

UNIX is one of the operating systems that started Linux into this world. Creation

UNIX began when in 1965 AT & tT’s Bell Telephone Labolatoris (Bell Labs)

who worked with General Electric and Project Mac of MIT to create an operating system

named Multics. In 1969, the MULTICS project by AT&T was stopped because it was late, no

according to a predetermined schedule, also because of the distance between researchers who

developed it, between the New Jersey laboratory and MIT. Also in 1969, Ken Thompson,

researchers who also worked on the MULTICS project using PDP- & tried computers

realize the idea of ​​MULTICS working with Dennis Ritchie, who also previously worked

in the MULTICS project.

UNIX is different from Multics. UNIX fulfills the advantages that are actually expected to exist in

Multics. That is:

1. Multylevel File system

2. Multyuser and Multyprocessor

3. Architectural design that is independent of a hardware

4. Various devices can be considered as special files

5. Have a simple user interface

6. Suitable for programming environments

7. Has utilities that can be combined together

In 1973 the UNIX operating system was rewritten using C language by Dennis Ritchie. Just

info that the C language was the first recognized programming language and even today

used. In the following years many additional features were added with the aim of increasingly

perfecting the UNIX operating system. Until finally AT&T launched the UNIX operating system

which is commercially known as UNIX System V.

AT&T scientists added a lot of capabilities to UNIX in 1970, so many

small programs called tools on UNIX, each used to do something

function. In 1973, Unix was rewritten by Ken Thompson in the new C language

from Ritchie, C language is designed to be portable from one computer to another.

In 1977, Mike Lesk developed the “ported I / 0 library”, a library that can be brought to address

difficulty carrying UNIX from one computer to another because of differences in handling I / 0 systems

from each computer, Unix was first brought into the Interdata 8/32 laboratory, microcomputer

which is the same as PDP-11. In 1978, the UNIX operating system was brought into the VAX mini computer.

until now Unix is ​​still largely an experimental system. Beginning in 1973 more than 16 AT&T

or Western Electric outside the Bell laboratory running the Unix operating system, Unix then

spread. In 1977 at least 500 places used the Unix operating system, 125 of which were

universities and more than 10 foreign countries. In 1977 also came out the Unix Version 6 which had

commercial support. University of California at Berkeley pays 400 (in units of dollars) for

get a Unix source in which there is a complete Unix source code. Bill Joy and

Chuck Haley, a graduate from Berkeley, began to change. In 1978 Bill Joy issued 30 copies

a collection of Unix programs and modifications at a cost of media replacement and shipping for 50 (in

unit of dollar). This distribution development is fully supported by DARPA (Defense Advanced Research

Projects Agency), including the super-powerful TCP / IP protocol which is a popular Internet life

now, but with the emergence of various types of UNIX, then to solve

this issue the Institute of Electrical Engineers (IEEE) developed the ANSI (American National standard)

The new Standards Institute is referred to as the POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface for) standard

Computer Environments). This standard defines how the operating system is similar

UNIX / UNIX Clone is operated, this standard also regulates in detail the use of system calls (routine kernel) and the system interface. The ANSI standard solves compatibility problems

and help with UNIX development.

Characteristics of the UNIX Operating System

Each operating system must have different characteristics, given the company’s development

also different. On the UNIX operating system you can find features that also become

distinguishing from other operating systems such as Windows or MacOS

It has been explained before that the UNIX operating system is classified as multiuser and multitasking.

The purpose of the multiuser is that it is possible for several users to use it in

the same time. While multitasking is the availability of features to run a process or

program in the same time anyway.

Besides this UNIX operating system is also classified as portable, this allows you to

run to other computer systems and even on all types of computers. Other conveniences you can

the UNIX operating system users get is when accessing and organizing each

information / data held. In addition there is a utility function that is program adjustment with each

user needs or desires.

Example of a UNIX Operating System

If we previously discussed the history of the development of UNIX, then this time we will review an example

– examples of UNIX operating systems that have been developed. With the encouragement of technological needs

the greater the UNIX operating system is indeed experiencing an increase or development.

This also encourages the emergence of many new operating systems that are actually based on UNIX

itself, but added certain features and technologies from each developer.

This is done so that the performance of an operating system can be stronger and more reliable with each – each

function and purpose of manufacture.

There are approximately 40 software or operating systems to date that have been developed by some

organizations or developers based on the UNIX operating system. Starting from A / UX and DOMAIN / X which

developed by Apple Computer to names that are quite often encountered such as BSD UNIX

with the developer of the University of California ( University of California) Berkeley, United States

and GNU / LINUX developed by the Free Software Foundation . Overall system example

operations that adopt UNIX in terms of manufacturing and how it works you can see in the table

the following:  Of all these operating systems, perhaps the most frequently encountered is Linux because of its function which is very important as a server or as an alternative to Windows. That is the discussion

about the understanding of UNIX and the history of UNIX, UNIX features and examples of other operating systems

which uses a UNIX system.

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