Programming language or known as computer programming language is the basic instruction for computer to do some task. It’s very essential today to working with programming language. When we learn it, we will meet something called “syntax”. Syntax is the rule to make the programming can work properly in computer. Every programming language has his own syntax. People who work on programming language known as programmer. Since the first time programming language created in 1883, it’s spread rapidly over the world with many various of language.

The Timeline

1843 : Algorithm for the Analytical Engine

              Ada Lovelace is the woman who credited as the founder of the programming language because of her found to compute Bernoulli numbers in Charles Babbage’s Analytical Engine. The analytical engine is the first computer machine built in the world. When she got chance to help Charles Babbage with his project, Lovelace found the algorithm and printed in English Science Journal at 1843

1949 : Assembly Language

              Assembly language is a low-level programming language for microprocessors and other programming devices, often abbreviated asm. Most computer of period 1980-1990 were developed using assembly language such as Atari ST and the MSX systems. Related to 1949 the Electronic Delay Storage Automatic Calculator (EDSAC) was incorporated with an assembler, ‘initial orders’, which used in letter mnemonics. Later in 1955, Stan Poley wrote the Symbolic Optimal Assembly Program or SOAP assembly language for IBM 650 computer.

1952 : Autocode

              Alick Glennie in 1952 build the first autocode for the Mark 1 computer at the University of Manchester and is considered by some to be the first compiled programming language. It’s mean that it can be translated directly into machine code using a program called a compiler.

1957 : Fortran

              Fortran is the programming language firstly developed by John Backus in IBM at 1956. It was used in science for 50 years after. Used for make easier build mathematic, knowledge, and technic application. Fortran is the stands for “Formula Translator/Translation”. It’s the first high level programming. Excels for handling complex calculation, but disadvantages in input/output operations. The source code is also difficult to understand if compared with the other high-level programming.

1958 : Algol

              Algol stands for Algorithmic Language, which greatly influenced many other languages and was the standard method for algorithm description used by the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) in textbooks and academic sources for more than thirty years. It was designed to avoid some of the perceived problems with FORTRAN and eventually gave rise to many other programming languages, including Pascal, C, C++, and Java

1959 : COBOL

              COBOL created by Dr . Grace Murray Hopper as a computer programming language that could run on all brands and types of computers. COBOL stands for Common Business Oriented Language is the third programming language. COBOL used in ATM, credit card, telephone systems, hospital and government computer, and the other.

1959 : LISP

              LISP created by John McCarthy of MIT, LISP is the second-oldest high-level programming language in widespread use today, one year younger than Fortran. LISP pioneered many ideas in computer science, including tree data structures, automatic storage management, dynamic typing c, conditionals, higher-order functions, recursion, the self-hosting complier, and the read-eval-print loop. It was originally created for artificial intelligence(AI) research but today can be used in situations where Ruby or Python are used.

1964: BASIC

              BASIC stands for Beginner’s All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code is a group of high-level programming language.  BASIC first developed by George Kemeny and Thomas Eugene Kurtz from Dartmouth College, to giving access to his student for using computer beside from science major only. A modified version of BASIC was written by Bill Gates and Paul Allen. This was to become the first microsoft product.

1970 : Pascal

              Pascal developed by Niklaus Wirth, Pascal was named to honor the French mathematician, physicist, and philosopher Blaise Pascal, It’s build as a tool for teaching computer programming to his student. Pascal was the main language used for software development in Apple’s early years. Pascal also improving the deficiency from another language.

1972 : Smalltalk

              Smalltalk developed by Alan Kay, Adele Goldberg, and Dan Ingalls at Xerox Palo Alto Research center. It was designed and created in part for educational use, specifically for constructionist learning. Smalltalk allowed programmer to modify code and also introduced other aspect of computer programming languages including python, java, and ruby.

1972 : C

              The C language developed by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Labs. C is considered by many to be the first high-level language. It’s mean the language is more closer to human language than to the machine. C was influenced many other languages, including Ruby, GO, Java, JavaScript, C++, C#, Perl, PHP, and Python.

1978: MATLAB

              MATLAB first developed by Cleve Moler. MATLAB stands for Matrix Laboratory. It’s the best programming language for writing mathematical programs. Used in mathematic research and education. It also can create dimensional graphics.

1983: Objective-C

              Objective-C Created by Brad Cox and Tom Love, Objective-C is the main programming language if we want build software in macOS and iOS, Apple’s operating systems.

1983: C++

              C++ is the extension language from C language, developed by Bjarne Stroustrup. It is one of the popular computer programming. C++ mostly used in game engines and high-performance like Adobe Photoshop. The difference between C and C++ is C++ is supporting the object oriented programming.

1987 : Perl

              Perl developed by Larry Wall in 1987 in UNIX machine as a scripting language designed for text editing. Perl is the It’s now widely used for many purposes such as linux system adimistration, network programming, and web development. Perl also can used in many operating systems like lInux, DOS, Windows, SunOs, and many other. 

1990 : Haskell

              Haskell is an advanced purely functional programming language. It has featured by statically typed, purely functional, type inference, concurrent, easy, and packages. It’s most mathematical language. It’s found by Haskell Brooks Curry, an American Logician and Mahtematician.

1991 : Python

              Python is a widely used general purpose, high level-programming language. Designed by Guido Van Rossum in 1991 and developed by Python Software Foundation. Python is easier to understand and not required complex syntax. Nowadays, python is used in many application, such us Instagram.

1991 : Visual Basic

              Visual Basic is a program designed by Microsoft, this program designed to make  software for Windows user. This program provide graphical user interface which allows programmers to modify code by simply dragging and dropping objects and defining their behavior and appearance.

1991 : HTML

              HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language is not include in programming language. Introduced by Tim Berners-Lee in the late of 1991 to the internet. The function of HTML in early build is to share the document between scientist in CERN, a Nuclear research in Europe. HTML as a mark up language doesn’t really ‘do’ anything in the sense that a programming language. It doesn’t contains programming logic. Don’t have if/else condition.  So it’s not the programming language. But the environment in HTML can be useful for the programmer build the new language inside it. Nowadays, almost every site in internet using HTML as a base from his content.

1993 : R

              R is a programming language and software for statistical analysis and graphic . R developed by Ross Ihaka and Robert Gentleman in Auckland University, New Zealand, and today still developed by R Development Core Team. The ‘R’ taken from the first names of the two authors.

1995 : Java

              Java is the programming language that can work in computer and mobile devices. This developed by James Gosling when he still joined the Sun Microsystems and now is the part of Oracle and being released in 1995. Java can deliver information on the World Wide Web and nowadays almost of devices run Java.

1995 : PHP

              PHP stands for Personal Home Page is a script language that we can put in HTML language. PHP is very useful to make a dynamic website. Created by Rasmus Lerdorf, to manage his own online information. PHP is now widely used to build website and blog. WordPress is one from many website that use them.

1995 : Ruby

              Created by Yukihiro “Matz” Matsumoto, who combined parts of his favorite languages to make a new  general-purpose computer language that can do many task. It’s slow to executes, but it allows programmer to put another program easily. It’s popular in web application development.

1995 : JavaScript

              JavaScript is a high-level and dynamic programming language. It can be used in almost all of the search engine software such us Google Chrome, Internet Explorer, Netscape, and Opera. This is one of the core technologies of the world wide web beside of HTML and CSS. JS created by Brendan Eich in just 10 days.

2000 : C#

              C# (pronounced see sharp) is a programming language developed by Microsoft as the part of .NET initiative by combining the ability from C++ and Visual Basic. C# is one of the programming languages designed for the Common Language Infrastructure(CLI). It used in almost of Microsoft product and is primarily for developing desktop applications.

2003 : Scala

              Scala is a programming language that build to criticize the Java program. Created by Martin Odersky. Scala combined object-oriented and functional programming in one concise, high-level language. Scala’s static types help avoid bugs in complex applications . and its JVM and JavaScript runtimes let us build high-performance systems with easy access to huge ecosystems of libraries.It’s really helpful in Android development.

2003 : Apache Groovy

              Apache Groovy is a Java-syntax-compatible object-oriented programming language for the Java platform. It’s both static and dynamic language with features similar to those of python, ruby, and Smalltalk. It can be used for programming and scripting languages, is compiled to Java Virtual Machine (JVM). Developed by James Strachan and Bob McWhirter. It’s easy to learn and concise.

2009 : Go

              Go is a programming language that developed by google in 2009, created by Robert Griesemer, Rob Pike, dan Ken Thompson. Go known as Golang. Golang is a programming language that is compiled and typed in C language. With many feature, like garbage collection, structured writing, memory security, and concurrent and sequential programming. Compilers and other IDEs were provided by Google from the start for free and are open source. Go was intended to improve working environment for programmers so they could write, read, and maintain large software systems more efficiently.

2014 : Swift

              Swift is a functional object programming language for iOS and OS X development made by Apple. Designed to replacement for C, C++, and Objective-C. Swift was built with the LLVM complier. It supposed to be easier to use and allows less room for mistakes and can run lightning fast.

Today :

              Today every program in computer is using the programming language. Most of them are inspired by the previous programming language. When one programming language is still developing, the newer was coming. It’s because the world need the more simple application to finish the complex things. With we know about the programming language, we become more understand that every languages have correlated each other. To become the pro programmer my teacher don’t teach me to understand all in one time. But to studied one by one from what I like. Do you want becoming master in programming language or maybe build new language??? is all up to you. Happy Learning 😊

Source :

https://www.onlinecollegeplan.com/computer-programming-languages/

https://medium.com/commitlog/a-brief-totally-accurate-history-of-programming-languages-d2e2b09553f8

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Programming_language

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