It is undeniable that devices and laptops are really needed tools today. They are the most useful human aids in daily activities. Good for work or for entertainment. There are games, music, counting tools, to other tools that are very useful for daily life.
Computer is also a transaction aid and a tool for us to get money or work. They process data for us and we manipulate data for us to get money. Like a graphics processor. We process an image or video and then show it to people and we can get money from it. Same is the case with bitcoin. We can also get various money from any method.
With computers providing a variety of features, humans are not yet satisfied. It is still being developed in such a way as to fulfill the increasingly human thirst for technology. The delusion of scientists in the presence of a super-powerful computer that uses the principles of quantum physics has actually been going on for quite some time.
In hindsight, a number of scientific works which propose that the principle of quantum mechanics has the potential to be used in a computer, has emerged since the latter half of the 1960s.
But only in 1981, Richard Feynmann, legendary physicist who was also a Nobel Prize winner, explicitly mentioned the term ‘Quantum Computer’ in one of the scientific journals presented at the ‘First Conference on the Physics of Computation’ organized by MIT.
What is a quantum computer?
Quantum computers are calculators that use a phenomenon of quantum mechanics, such as superposition and linkages, to carry out data operations. In classical computing, the amount of data is calculated in bits; in a quantum computer, this is done with qubits. The basic principle of quantum computers is that the quantum properties of particles can be used to represent data and data structures, and that quantum mechanics can be used to carry out operations with this data. In this case, to develop computers with quantum systems, a new logic that is in accordance with the principles of quantum is needed.
The idea of this quantum computer came from several physicists including Charles H. Bennett from IBM, Paul A. Benioff from Argonne National Laboratory, Illinois, David Deutsch from the University of Oxford, and Richard P. Feynman from California Institute of Technology (Caltech).
The Turing Machine, which was developed by Alan Turing in the 1930s, is a theoretical device consisting of a tape tape of unlimited length that is divided into small boxes. Each square can have a symbol (1 or 0) or be left blank. The current literacy device would read these symbols and emptiness, which gave the machine instructions for carrying out certain programs.
Now, in a quantum Turing machine, the difference is that the tape is in a quantum state, just like the head of a literacy device. This means that the symbol on the ribbon can be 0 or 1, or superposition 0 and 1; in other words the symbols are 0 and 1 (and all dots in between) at the same time. While ordinary Turing machines can only do one calculation at a time, a quantum Turing machine can do many calculations at once.
How do quantum computers work?
The computer that we use now works using a binary system (0 and 1) which is represented by transistors and packaged on a single chip.
So every instruction we give to be done by the computer will be translated through the layers of the programming language to the level of machine language into a series of numbers 0 and 1 that can be best understood by the transistors.
The speed of executing the command will greatly depend on the number of transistors that can be crammed into a chip. Currently scientists have been able to create transistors that are formed from just a few atoms, so the number that can be packaged in a single chip can reach billions.
But that is the limitation of traditional computers today, because the gate transistor is no longer possible to be made smaller than ‘a few atoms’ with the traditional physics principles used.
The principles of quantum mechanics, with all its wonders, are used to penetrate the boundaries of the ‘few atoms’ earlier. In quantum mechanical systems, an atom is known to have a number of ‘states’ which can be used to replace binary systems.
If in the binary-based transistor model, can only get two states: 0 and 1, which can only be achieved using a number of atoms, then by using the ‘quantum state’ like superposition, then by using just one atom can be achieved by a number of states.
Put simply, using a property called ‘superposition’ an atom can have a status of +1, 0 or -1.
This difference in status from one atom can be further exploited into ‘machine language’ to carry out the instructions we give. These are called ‘Quantum bits’ or ‘Qubits’.
A number of quantum computer developers take a different approach to being able to get this Qubit.
While IBM, the first to release a commercial computer quantum system with the code name IBM Q, uses a fairly extraordinary approach, namely by creating ‘artificial atoms’ that specifically function as Qubits.
And so that the artificial atom can be ‘set’ its state as desired, then the atom must be made to be in a stationary position.
As we have been able to in science lessons in middle school, under normal conditions, the molecule always moves randomly known as ‘Brownian Motion’. And the new atom can stop moving or stay at absolute 0 or 0 Kelvin, equivalent to -273 degrees Celsius.
And that is what is done in the IBM Q system, to be able to manipulate the Qubit, the system must be cooled to near 0 degrees Kelvin.
Utilization of quantum computers
not everything can and does need to use the superpowers of quantum computers. Daily work such as word processing or spreadsheets certainly should not be given to a quantum computer.
With far more states than binary systems, quantum computers have the potential to solve problems that have very complex mathematical complexity much faster than when done with binary computers.
Problems with this complex mathematical complexity usually arise in research at the molecular level or even smaller. Like nanotechnology research or modern physics modeling.
With the help of quantum computers, it is hoped that the problem of mathematical calculations in ultra-complex research can be solved much faster so that we can get results ready to be held to the public more quickly as well.
Artificial intelligence systems or machine learning or deep learning, all of which are based on complex calculations, also seem to get steroid injections when combined with quantum computers.
Professor Michio Kaku, one of the leading physicists at this time, stated that it was artificial intelligence, machine learning and quantum computers that would bring humans to colonize the planet Mars soon, as dreamed up in the film ‘Martian’.
Nevertheless, we need not be afraid of the presence of intelligent systems that will be generated by the presence of this quantum computer. Because all of that is evidence of human strength that seems to be unable to reach the machine at any time, namely imagination.
Like the story of technological advances, computer quantum comes from imagination, imagination, which was originally considered a fairy tale. However, over time, successfully realized into reality.
Albert Einstein once said, that imagination is far more important than knowledge.