Computer derived from the word “compute” which means to calculate, at the beginning of its creation, the computer is only used as a calculation aid. But over time, the function of the computer itself is increasingly diverse, for example to help facilitate human work in the fields of graphics, programming, making documents, photos, posters, advertisements, videos, to animation. The use of computers is also very helpful in the fields of Education, commerce, business, government, military, and many other fields.
Beginning with updated vacuum tube technology in the presence of transistors that have more capabilities than vacuum tubes, but there is a disadvantage behind that too large transistors generate heat, which can potentially damage parts of the computer. Then found Quartz Stone or Quartz rock that can overcome this problem. An engineer at Texas Instrument, named Jack Kilby, developed an integrated circuit (IC) in 1958. IC can combine three electronic components in a small silicon disk made of quartz sand. Then scientists succeeded in inserting more components into a single chip called a semiconductor. And produce a computer whose size is getting smaller because the components inside can be compacted on a chip. Another progress on third generation computers is the use of operating systems, which are systems that allow machines to run various different programs simultaneously with a main program that oversees or monitors and coordinates the memory of a computer machine.
As previously explained, third generation computers use ICs (integrated circuits) as components in their circuits replacing the use of a single transistor which in addition to consuming space also produces excess heat which can potentially damage the core components of the computer. Besides IC, there are several other components that characterize this third generation computer. For more details, here are the components that characterize a third generation computer:
• Use of Integrated Circuit (IC), a small silicon disc made from quartz stone which contains a number of transistors.
• Using large-capacity magnetic discs (millions of characters as external storage) external / additional storage that is random access.
• Use a visual display terminal (monitor).
• Sounding voice.
In addition to the hardware components mentioned above, several things in the third generation of software and computer performance are also growing very rapidly. The following are the characteristics of other third-generation computers:
• Programs are made in high-level languages such as Fortan, Cobol, or basic.
• The operating system that functions to monitor and coordinate computer memory is put into use.
• Hardware and software integrity is being implemented through the operating system.
• Multi processing and multi programming. With the operating system, the machine can run several programs at once.
• Computer performance is much faster, up to 10 thousand times faster than early generation computers.
• Memory capacity is much greater. Can store hundreds of thousands of characters, more than previous generations of computers that can only store tens of thousands of characters.
• Cheaper and cheaper electricity.
• Have been able to communicate with other computers (Computer Networks).
It was never imagined that a computer that was originally the size of a room that needed two city-sized electricity to power it was now small and very energy-efficient to power it. This would not have happened without the will and thought of scientists today. With the invention of the microprocessor in the 1970s, it became possible to produce very cheap computers. Computer use has become popular for many tasks, including storing data, writing and printing documents. Forecasting calculations and other repetitive mathematics with spreadsheets, related to email and the Internet. However, the wide availability of computers and easy customization have seen them used for many other purposes.
The speed of the computer processor is increasing rapidly allowing the computer to be used in the fields of multimedia and graphic design. such as making animations, processing images to make digital videos that are close to real / real. The size of the computer that is shrinking makes computer use increasingly rapidly developing. even with the birth of a smart phone, which is a computer the size of a cellphone making tasks like writing, browsing etc. can be done anywhere. besides that the development of computers is increasingly increasing and it is estimated there are still many computer uses that will be discovered by experts.
Lots of works of the invention of third generation computers that help facilitate human career in that era. Results from Third Generation Computers:
• IBM System 360: The computer produced by IBM is the third generation of computers first introduced to the public. The IBM S-360 was launched on April 7, 1964 and has used an IC in its circuit. The IBM S-360 is considered the most successful third generation computer, because this computer was launched in a variety of compatible sets and about price.
• Apple II: Apple II is an improvement from Apple I made with limited funds owned by the founder of Apple Inc. Apple II was introduced to the public in April 1977 at the West Coast Computer Faire. Apple II stores the monitor display in memory so that it can display images, in addition to the design of the casing and keyboard are made as well as possible so that the user is ready to be used directly by the user.
• PDC 808: The computer introduced in 1968 was the first computer to be used for automation. PDC 808 has 4 KB of memory and 8 bi core memory.
• UNIVAC 1108; and UNIVAC 9000.
• PDP-8, and PDP-11
• BURROUGHS 5700, BORROUGH 6700, and BORROUGHS 6700.
• HONEYWELL 200.
• Century NCR series.
• GE 600 and GE 235.
• CDC 3000, CDC 6000, and CDC 7000.
• SPECTRA 70.
• NEC PC.
Although they have used ICs that make the computer size smaller than the previous generation, the size of this third generation computer circuit is still considered too large, the physical size of the computer is also considered too large. Besides that, in terms of usage it is still quite complicated, and the heat generated is excessive, despite the use of quartz stone. So that computer development continues, and led to the fourth generation and fifth generation computers.
Thus the article about this third generation computer, the main characteristic of third generation computers is the use of an Intergreted Circuit or Chi IC, a silicon disk that contains a number of compacted transistors. Integrated Circuit or IC is a forerunner to the development of microprocessors, and allows the next generation of computers to have a smaller physical size. Finally, I hope this article can provide the information you need.