Technological developments are increasingly sophisticated. Sensor is something that can change physical quantities and chemical quantities become electricity either electric current or voltage, so it can be analyzed. The physics magnitude in question includes magnetism, electricity, gravity, light, speed, acceleration, motion, force, pressure, temperature and humidity of the air. While the chemical quantities include PH, Oxygen, Carbon monoxide, etc. There are 3 main components forming a sensor system, namely:

  1. Sensor structure, at the core of the sensor functions to change physical or chemical quantities into analog signals. Then the signal processing pre-function section converts analog signals into digital signals.
  2. Sensor Manufacturing Technology, the development of sensor technology will be more rapid with the presence of nano technology. Technology with a very small size base gives many advantages including small power consumption, more reliable and cheaper.
  3. Signal Processing, in this section aims to overcome the factors that cause the sensor parameters to become unstable, thereby reducing the quality of the sensor.

Sensor Characteristics

To determine the quality of a sensor can be seen from the general sensor characteristics including:

  1. Sensitivity, which is a measure of how sensitive a sensor can detect a quantity. A good sensor can certainly recognize a quantity even in a very minimum size.
  2. Selectivity, which is an ability to the extent that a sensor can select the amount it is measuring, of course the physical and chemical quantities in nature are intermingled.
  3. Response Time, i.e. how fast the time needed for a sensor to recognize the amount it detects. The faster the sensor detects, the more quality it will be.
  4. Stability, i.e. how consistent a sensor can detect magnitude over time.

Types of Sensors and Their Applications

There are several types of sensors based on the physical and chemical quantities detected and their applications, including:

  1. Temperature Sensor (Thermal)

A sensor that is used to detect symptoms of temperature changes in an object or space. There are several types of temperature sensors including thermocouples, RTD (Resistance Temperature Detector), Thermostats, and IC Sensors.

Temperature sensor applications: in the iron and steel industry, radioisotope thermal power plants, food processing, bimetal, hygrometers, etc.

  • Light Sensor

A sensor to detect changes in light either reflecting or refracting light. Examples of light sensors are LDR (Light Dependent Resistor).

Light sensor applications: counters, indicators, potentiometers and alarm circuits.

  • Sound Sensor

It is a sensor that detects sound and converts it into an electrical signal. An example of a sound sensor is a condenser mic.

Sound sensor application: in robot systems and telecommunications systems.

  • Pressure Sensor

A sensor that measure the pressures of a substance, and converts it into an electrical signal. Examples of pressure sensors are direct type pressure sensors with Silicon on Sapphire technology and MPX4100 pressure sensors.

Pressure sensor applications: tire pressure gauges, on aircraft and in weather monitors.

  • Speed ​​Sensor

It is a sensor that detects the speed of motion of objects and converts them into electrical signals. Examples of speed sensors are Tachometer and meter encoder.

Speed ​​sensor application: speedometer on a vehicle.

  • Magnetic Sensor

A sensor detects a magnetic field. An example of a magnetic sensor is Maglev.

Magnetic sensor applications: on car doors and hotel doors that apply magnetic sensors.

  • Color Sensor

A sensor that detects warrants on an object. An example of a color sensor is the TCS230 color sensor.

Color sensor application: car paint color detector.

Sensor strengths and weaknesses based on resistance

  • LDR

The advantage of an ldr is that it really depends on how much light is received. This causes the force or external connection will not affect devices that use LDR. LDR also is a light sensor whose concept of use is the simplest. In addition, the constituent materials are well-known materials in various technological applications, so that production costs are low and available in almost all regions.

  • Thermistor (Thermally Sensitive Resistor)
  • The most accurate temperature sensor in the measurement
  • Has very good long-term stability (not affected by aging)
  • Has better measurement accuracy than RTD
  • The price is cheap
  • Has a high resolution and has a flexible size and shape
  • Can be used as a current limiting limiter
  • Can be used as a temperature detector and controller
  • Thermocouple
  • Diverse specifications
  • Low cost
  • Wide temperature range so that it can be adjusted to high temperatures
  • Fast respon

Rand user is a device / tool that can change a quantity to another scale. For example, this broad definition of transducer includes devices that convert forces or mechanical movements into electrical signals. Transducers can be grouped according to usage, energy conversion method, the nature of the output signal and others.

Transducers and sensors are distinguished according to the activity based on the conversion of the signal from the non-electric signal value to the electrical signal value, namely: active sensor and passive sensor.

Passive sensors and transducers are sensors and transducers that can convert directly from energy from non-electric energy (such as mechanical energy, thermal energy, light energy or chemical energy) to electrical energy. Sensors and transducers are usually packaged in a package consisting of elements as detectors, and devices that convert energy from non-electric quantities into electrical quantities.

Active sensors and transducers are sensors and transducers that can convert directly from energy from non-electric energy (such as mechanical energy, thermal energy, light energy or chemical energy) to electrical energy working on the principle of power control. Active sensors and transducers require external power assistance.

The Working Principle of Sensors and Transducers The working principle of a sensor is determined by the main sensor material used which is closely related to the type of magnitude sensed. The working principle of the sensor:

  1. The principle of photovoltaics as sensed is light. Light is converted into a voltage between two different materials.
  2. Piezoelectric Principle the magnitude of the senses causes changes in the V voltage and Q charge caused by a type of crystal.
  3. Electromagnetic Principle the magnitude of the senses changes the magnetic flux which then shakes off a voltage.
  4. Electromagnetic Principle the magnitude of the senses changes the magnetic flux which then shakes off a voltage.
  5. Principle of photoconductive magnitude that is sensed to change the conductive or resistance of semi-conducting material through changes in the light of the material.
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