"At present the Industrial Revolution 4.0 has come and cannot be avoided, no one is able to stop it, because the impact is very very helpful for humans." said Ignasius Donan, Minister of Energy and Mineral Resources. In this era of instant, modern, and digital, conventional technology seems difficult to find in a way that is difficult to use.
 
Biodiesel. Biodiesel is a monoalkylester (methyl ester) compound produced by the transesterification reaction of trigeliserides with methanol. Biodiesel has a carbon chain between 12 and 20 and contains oxygen. The presence of oxygen determines biodiesel with diesel petroleum containing carbon and hydrogen. So, the composition of these two different fuels has a composition in chemical and physical properties. Biodiesel can be used as diesel engine fuel or mixed with diesel petroleum. A mixture of 20% biodiesel in diesel oil or known as B-20 diesel oil is an environmentally friendly fuel and can be used directly by diesel engines without changing engine construction.
 
Renewable energy is energy that comes from natural sources such as sunlight, wind, rain, geothermal and biomass. In 2006 around 18% of world energy consumption came from renewable energy sources and this number tended to increase from year to year. Currently there is no technology available to take over the production of energy from fossil fuels, but some of the technologies mentioned above are very promising and have the potential to be developed in Indonesia. Until the mid 1800s, wood was the source of almost all of the country's energy needs for heating, cooking and lighting. From the late 1800s until now, fossil fuels - coal, petroleum and natural gas - have become the main energy sources. Hydropower and solid biomass were the most widely used renewable energy sources until the 1990s. Since then, the share of U.S. energy consumption from biofuels, solar, and wind energy have increased. Renewable energy accounts for 13.5% of total world energy supply, and 22% of world electricity. Renewable energy systems are the main topic when discussing the future of world energy for two main reasons. Renewable energy systems provide energy from a source that will never run out. Renewable energy systems produce less greenhouse gas emissions than fossil fuel energy systems. While renewable energy systems are better for the environment and produce fewer emissions than conventional energy sources, many of these sources still face difficulties in being placed on a large scale including, but not limited to, technological obstacles, high initial capital costs, and challenges intermittency [4]. It is important to note that the terms 'renewable energy', 'green energy' and 'clean energy' are not interchangeable in all cases; for example, a 'clean' coal plant is just a coal plant with emission reduction technology. The coal plant itself is still not a 'renewable energy' source. 'Green energy' is part of renewable energy, which offers low or zero emissions and low environmental impact on systems such as land and water. 

Renewable energy plays an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Using renewable energy can reduce the use of fossil fuels. Most renewable energy is derived directly or indirectly from the sun. Sunlight can be captured directly using solar technologies. The sun's heat drives winds, whose energy is captured with turbines. Plants also rely on the sun to grow and their stored energy can be utilized for bioenergy. Some potential renewable energy sources and abundant availability in Indonesia include: wind, geothermal, hydropower, solar, biomass (biogas, solid biofuels and liquid biofuels). The wind is classified as the most abundant RES in the world. The amount of energy produced from a wind turbine depends on the diameter of the turbine and wind speed. Therefore wind turbines are installed on towers that can reach heights of 50 m and are placed along the beach or hilltop. According to the Directorate General of Electricity and Energy Utilization (2009), the potential for wind energy in Indonesia reaches 9290 MW.  Hydropower is energy that comes from water. These energy sources include rivers, waterfalls and tides. Hydropower is a RES that is very widely available in Indonesia. According to the Directorate General of Electricity and Energy Utilization (2009) Indonesia's Hydropower potential reached 4.99 x 1018 J / year. Geothermal or geothermal energy is obtained from geothermal energy. The heat that comes from the bowels of the earth penetrates and spreads throughout the face of the earth, but only a few locations where there is heat that is concentrated and economical enough to be exploited. Currently in the world, including Indonesia geothermal energy, including promising energy from all existing RES. Data from the Directorate General of Electricity and Energy Utilization (2009) shows that Indonesia's geothermal potential reaches 27,000 MW.

Biogas is the result of decomposition of organic materials in gaseous form, usually in the form of methane gas and carbon dioxide. Besides biogas also often contains corrosive gases such as gas from sulfur so it needs to be removed first before being used (biogas purification). Biogas technology is relatively simple so that it is easily developed in all regions of Indonesia Solid biofuels are Renewable Energy Sources (RES) derived from living organisms. Solid biofuels are distinguished from Solid Fossil Fuels which also come from living organisms but are not renewable. Included in the type of solid biofuel include wood, organic waste and bioarang. Biodiesel. Biodiesel is a monoalkylester (methyl ester) compound produced by the transesterification reaction of trigeliserides with methanol. Biodiesel has a carbon chain between 12 and 20 and contains oxygen. The presence of oxygen distinguishes biodiesel from petroleum diesel containing carbon and hydrogen. So the composition of the two fuels are different but have similarities in chemical and physical properties. Biodiesel can be used as diesel engine fuel or mixed with petroleum diesel. A mixture of 20% biodiesel in petroleum diesel or known as B-20 diesel oil is an environmentally friendly fuel and can be used directly by diesel engines without changing engine construction. Wise use of fossil energy through savings and strict control will extend the life of fossil fuel reserves, but in the long run the environmentally friendly RES will actually play an increasing role in meeting our energy needs. RES, except hydrogen energy, might not be able to completely replace fossil energy if they are used up, but RES will still be a potential energy source to be developed in Indonesia. The development of solar, wind, geothermal, water and biomass energy through the use of agricultural industrial by-products or waste into energy through direct combustion or conversion to biofuels not only provides renewable alternative energy but also has the opportunity to open up new jobs.
 


 

1 COMMENT

  1. Hi my family member! I want to say that this article is awesome, nice written and come with almost all important infos. I’d like to peer more posts like this .

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