Sophisticated computers created to process large amounts of power have not been able to quench our thirst for speed and computational capacity, which so far has continued to grow. But looking at the history of computers, it seems difficult to believe what we have achieved at this time. In 1947, American computer engineer Howard Aiken said that America only needed six digital computer units to meet the country’s computing needs. Meanwhile, other experts have made false predictions about the amount of computing power that will support our evolving technological needs. Of course, Aiken does not consider the large amounts of data generated by scientific research, the development of personal computers or the emergence of the Internet, which drives the need for more and more computing power.

Will we have the amount of computing power we need or want? If, as Moore’s Law says, if the number of transistors on a microprocessor continues to increase twice every 18 months, then in 2020 or 2030 we will find circuits on a microprocessor measured at the atomic scale. The logical step to meet the ever-increasing computational needs is to create quantum computers , sophisticated devices capable of empowering the power of atoms and molecules to perform data and memory processing tasks. Quantum computers have the potential to do certain calculations much faster than any silicon-based computer.    

What is a quantum computer?

The Turing Machine, which was developed by Alan Turing in the 1930s, is a theoretical device consisting of a tape tape of unlimited length divided into small boxes. Each square can have a symbol (1 or 0) or be left blank. The current literacy device would read these symbols and emptiness, which gave the machine instructions for carrying out certain programs.

In a quantum Turing machine, the difference is that the tape is in a quantum state, just like the head of a literacy device. This means that the symbol on the ribbon can be 0 or 1, or superposition 0 and 1; in other words the symbols are 0 and 1 (and all dots in between) at the same time. While ordinary Turing machines can only do one calculation at a time, a quantum Turing machine can do many calculations at once.

Today’s modern computers, like the Turing machine, work by manipulating bits that exist in one of these two states: 0 or 1. Quantum computers are not limited to two states. Quantum computers encode information as quantum bits , or qubits, commonly found in superpositions. Qubits represent atoms, ions, photons or electrons and control devices that work together as computer memory and processors. Because quantum computers can hold many of these conditions and calculations together, quantum computers have the potential to be millions of times more powerful than the most powerful supercomputers available today. 

How quantum computers work

Until now, the two most promising uses for quantum computer devices were to conduct quantum searches and quantum factoring. To understand how quantum search works, imagine if you search for specific names and telephone numbers in the Yellow Pages or telephone book in the conventional way. If the telephone book has 10,000 entries, on average you need to see about half of that number, which is 5,000 entries, before you have the potential to find the name and number you are looking for. The quantum search algorithm only needs to guess 100 times. With 5,000 guesses, a quantum computer is able to find 25 million names in the telephone book.  

Quantum computers that exist today

One day, experts believe that quantum computers will replace silicon chips, just as transistors have replaced vacuum tubes. But for now, the technology needed to develop such quantum computers is beyond our reach. Most research in quantum computing is still very theoretical.  

At present, the most advanced quantum computer’s capabilities do not go beyond manipulating more than 16 qubits. That is, its capabilities are far different from practical applications. However, the potential of quantum computers can one day work faster and easier to do calculations that take up a lot of time on conventional computers. Some important advances have been made in quantum computing in recent years.

There is a statement that reveals that in this era of classical computer has passed / finished, and its role has been replaced by quantum computers.  

Classical Computer Specifications

In practice, classical computers depend on the final level of principles, as explained by Boolean Algebra. Data needs to be processed under exclusive binary conditions at each time point or bit. Whereas at that time each transistor or capacitor must be at a state of 0 or 1 before changing the current status measured in billion seconds.

Quantum computers are tools that use principles derived from quantum theory in processing information. A quantum computer can process all kinds of information following the laws of quantum physics so that it can perform tasks by using all possible permutations at the same time.

Quantum Computer Specifications

Quantum computers are tools that use the principles of quantum theory in information processing. In quantum theory, it is explained about the behavior of micro-sized objects including molecules, atoms and particles. The macroscopic world is different from the microscopic world. In the quantum principle, matter can act as particles and waves. This is called wave-particle dualism which is a uniqueness of quantum theory.

In connection with quantum theory, quantum computers can also process all types of information that are processed by classical computers. Besides that, one of the comparisons of classical computers and quantum computers, is that quantum computers have one unique characteristic, namely quantum superposition to carry out computing that cannot be done by classical computers. 

History of Quantum Computers

Gordon Moore is one of the founders of Intel who in the 1960s revealed that the number of transistors that could be made in one microprocessor doubled every 18 months. This is known as Moore’s law.  

Moore’s Law is the basis that the ability of computers should be enhanced by way of incorporating transistors in greater numbers into the chip. Intel incurred enormous costs in research in order to ensure that Moore’s law remains in force. 

But in line with the shrinking size of transistors and chips, the heat generated on computer chips has also increased so that there is a huge cost to remove the heat because heat has the potential to cause damage. The amount of cost will certainly hamper the development of the computer industry in the future.

In addition, the thing that is equally important is the size of the chip at the nanometer scale (one per trillion meters). So the quantum effect becomes very important because of course it will be very difficult to create a chip that can work correctly. So this is where the mind was born to create a quantum computer.

In order to ensure that Moorish law still applies. The initial concept of computers operating according to quantum theory was first coined by American physicist Richard Fenyman in the 1980s. He realized that classical computers are no longer efficient if used to simulate the dynamics of quantum systems.

Quantum Computer Superposition and Attachment

  • Superposition

Imagine a qubit as an electron in a magnetic field. The electron spin is likely to go well with a field called the spin-up status. And the opposite of the plane is called spin-down. In accordance with quantum law, the particle will enter the superposition state in which the particle will behave as in the two states simultaneously. And for each qubit used it can take superpositions of 0 and 1.

  • Winding

Particles that interact with each other at some point will maintain this type of connection and can be entangled and paired with each other. This process is called correlation. This quantum entanglement can allow qubits separated by distance to be able to interact with each other, no matter how far apart the particles will be entangled as long as they remain isolated.  

Superposition and entanglement simultaneously will provide power komputansi increased enormously and is based on the fact that quantum computers have a speed of 100 million-fold when compared with the general computer available today.

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