PCs are designed based on different CPU generations. Intel is not the only company that makes CPUs, despite being a pioneer among others. Each generation that dominates is Intel chips, but in the fifth generation there are several choices besides Intel chips.
The processor is a very important part of a computer, which functions as the brain of the computer. Without a computer processor it’s just a stupid machine that can’t do anything. The processor that we use today is very fast. Of course, to reach speed until now the processor is experiencing development. The following is the development of processors starting from the generation of 4004 microprocessors used on Busicom calculating machines up to Intel Quad-core Xeon.
The development of the processor was initiated by an Intel processor at that time only one microprocessor existed. But at this time many processors have circulated from other manufacturers, so users can get a variety of processors.
1. Microprocessor 4004 (1971)
The processor began in 1971 where Intel released its first processor which was used on the Buscom counter. This is a discovery that began to insert intelligent systems into machines. This processor is called a microprocessor 4004. This Intel 4004 chip started the development of the CPU by pioneering the laying of all components of a calculating machine in one IC. At this time the IC does only one task.
2. Microprocessor 8008 (1972)
In 1972 Intel issued a 8008 microprocessor with a speed counted twice that of the previous MP. This MP is the first 8 bit MP. This mp is also designed to do just one job.
3. Microprocessor 8080 (1974)
In 1974 Intel again released the latest MP with the 8080 series. In this series Intel made a change from MP Multivoltage to Triple Voltage, the technology used by NMOS, faster than the previous series using PMOS technology. Mp is the first brain for a computer called altair. At this time the memory addressing has reached 64 kilobytes. Speeds up to 10X before.
This year also appeared mp from other manufacturers such as the MC6800 from Motorola -1974, Z80 from Zilog-1976 (two heavy rivals), and other 6500 series processors made by MOST, Rockwell, Hyundai, WDC, NCR and so on.
GENERATION 1 (Processor 8088 and 8086)
Processor 8086 (1978) is Intel’s first 16-bit CPU that uses a 16-bit system bus. But 16-bit hardware like motherboards at that time was too expensive, where 8-bit micro computers were standard. In 1979 Intel redesigned the CPU so that it was compatible with the existing 8 bit hardware. The first PC (1981) had this 8088 CPU. 8088 is a 16-bit CPU, but only internally. The external data bus width is only 8 bits which provides compatibility with existing hardware.
Indeed 8088 is a 16/8 bit CPU. Logically this processor can be named 8086SX. 8086 is the first CPU that is really 16 bits in this family.
GENERATION 2 Processor 80286
286 (1982) is also a 16-bit processor. This processor has a relatively large progress compared to first generation chips. The clock frequency is increased, but the main improvement is optimization of command handling. 286 produces more work per clock tick than 8088/8086. At the initial speed (6 MHz) pointing work four times better than 8086 at 4.77 MHz. Later it was introduced with a clock speed of 8.10, and 12 MHz which was used on IBM PC-AT (1984). Another update is the ability to work in protected mode / protection mode – a new working mode with “24 bit virtual address mode” / 24 bit virtual addressing mode, which confirms the direction of movement from DOS to Windows and multitasking. But you cannot switch from protected to real mode without booting the PC, and the operating system that uses this is only OS / 2 at that time.
Processor 80386 DX386 was launched October 17, 1985. 80386 was the first 32 bit CPU. From the point of view of a traditional DOS PC, it is not a revolution. A good 286 works as fast as the first 386SX – even though it applies 32-bit mode. This processor can address up to 4 GB of memory and has a better way of addressing than 286. 386 works at clock speeds of 16.20 and 33 MHz. Later Cyrix and AMD made clones that worked at 40 MHz. 386 introduces a new working mode besides the real and protected modes in 286. The new mode is called virtual 8086 which is open for multitasking because the CPU can create several virtual 8086 in each memory location individually. 80386 was the first CPU to work well with earlier versions of Windows.
This chip is an incomplete chip that is very well known from 386DX. This processor only has an external data bus 16 bit different from DX which is 32 bit. Also, SX only has 24 address lines. Therefore, this processor can only address a maximum of 16MB RAM. This processor is not a real 386, but a cheaper motherboard makes it very popular.
GENERATION 4 Processor 80486 DX
80486 was issued April 10, 1989 and worked twice as fast as its predecessor. This can occur because of faster handling of x86 commands, especially in RISC mode. At the same time the bus speed is increased, but 386DX and 486DX are 32 bit chips. Something new in 486 is to make a math coprocessor / mathematical helper processor.
Previously, the math co-processor that had to be installed was a separate 387 chip, 486 also had an 8 KB L1 cache.
GENERATION 5 Pentium Classic (P54C)
This chip was developed by Intel and issued on March 22, 1993. The Pentium processor is a super scalar, which means that this processor can run more than one command per tick clock. This processor handles two commands per tick, comparable to two 486 on one chip. There was a big change in the system bus: the width doubled to 64 bits and the speed increased to 60 or 66 MHz. Since then, Intel has produced two types of Pentium that work on 60 MHz bus systems (P90, P120, P150, and P180) and the rest, working at 66 MHz (P100, P133, P166, and P200).
GENERATION 6 Pentium Pro
Development of the Pentium Pro began 1991, in Oregon. Introduced on November 1, 1995. Pentium Pro is a pure RISC processor, optimized for 32-bit processing on Windows NT or OS / 2. The new feature is that the L2 cache is one giant chip, with a rectangular chip and Socket-8. The CPU unit and the L2 cache are separate units on this chip.
GENERATION 7 AMD K-7 Athlon
The main AMD processor that was very appalling Athlon (K7) was introduced in August 1999. Intel’s response (code name Foster) could not be expected until the end of 2000. In the first months, the market responded to Athlon very positively. It seems (as expected) to outperform Pentium III at the same clock frequency.
GENERATION 8 Intel Core 2 duo
The 8th generation processor is the Core 2 Duo which was launched in July 2007. This processor uses a microprocessor with x86 architecture. The architecture is called Intel’s Intel Core Microarchitecture, where the architecture replaces the old architecture from Intel called NetBurst since 2000 ago. The use of Core 2 also marks the era of new Intel processors, where the Intel Pentium brand that has been used since 1993 was replaced by Intel Core.
In this design Core 2 is very different from NetBurst. In NetBurst which is applied in Pentium 4 and Pentium D, Intel puts forward a very high clock speed. Whereas in the new Core 2 architecture, Intel places more emphasis on enhancing the features of the CPU, such as cache size and the number of cores available in the Core 2 processor. Intel claims that the power consumption of the new architecture only requires very little power when compared to the previous Pentium processor lineup.
Intel Core 2 processors have features including EM64T, Virtualization Technology, Execute Disable Bit, and SSE4. Meanwhile, the latest technology that is carried is LaGrande Technology, Enhanced SpeedStep Technology, and Intel Active Management Technology (iAMT2).
GENERATION 9 Intel Core 2
The Core 2 Microprocessor family was first introduced on July 27, 2006, based on the “Intel Core” microarchitecture. Produced in several versions, “Solo” (single-core / one to, only available in the mobile version), “Duo” (dual-core / two-core), “Quad” (quad-core / four core), and discussed in 2007, the “Extreme” version (two or four core). Processor Core 2 Duo has two cores in the sati die. Whereas on the Core 2 Quad processor, Intel uses Multi-Chip Module technology, while the processor consists of two dies, and each dies there with Core 2 Duo.
On Core 2 processors use 167 million to 820 million transistors, using 65 nm and 45 nm technology. Core 2 L1 cache capacity is 64 KB on each core processor, while L2 cache capacity varies between 2MB, up to 12MB (2 x 6MB) and FSB between 533 MT / s to 1600 MT / s, depending on the model.
All Core 2 processor models support the “MMX”, “SSE”, “SSE2”, “SSE3”, “SSSE3”, “Enhanced Intel SpeedStep Technology” (EIST), “Intel 64” (x86-64 implementation) “XD bit “(Implementation of NX bit), and” iAMT2 “(Intel Active Management). For some models, Intel adds “Intel VT-x” (Intel Virtualization Technology for x86), “TXT” (Trusted Execution Technology), and “SSE4” (Penryn) features.
Even though the Core 2 processor runs at a lower frequency compared to the Pentium 4, its more efficient architecture makes the Core 2 performance better.