Imagine in front of you there are two iron plates, two long cables, and a 12-volt car battery that reads Yuasa that has just been filled.

Then you arrange the two metal plates so that they are facing each other and parallel to a distance of only 1 cm. By using the two cables provided, you connect one iron to the positive pole of the battery, while the other iron is connected to the negative pole.

Then when wearing the Ant Man costume, you press the button at the base of your right index finger until you shrink, continue to shrink, while feeling a bit of nausea in the stomach, until finally reaching a subatomic size.

And how surprised you are when you can see various miracles that exist in this other realm.

As you approach the iron plate atoms, your eyes widen at the sight of positive iron plate atoms left behind by electrons.

With curiosity, you approach the atoms on the iron plate next to it that are connected to the negative pole of the battery. And you’re even more curious, because seeing iron atoms is actually approached by electrons, more and more, and more and more piling up.

A few moments later you are surprised. You see a change in the phenomenon.

The flow of electrons stops completely. But you feel the power of new energy stored in the atoms of two parallel iron plates. Sort of, a new battery.

So at a glance what is a capacitor when viewed from the perspective of Ant Man. And of course I was only joking about the existence of one of Marvel’s superheroes. But for the illustration of the electrical phenomenon above, I’m not kidding, that’s what happened to the capacitor.

In fact, a capacitor is only an electrical component consisting of two electrical conductors flanking an insulator. Therefore the symbol of the capacitor is shaped like that, which is like two parallel wires that provide distance from each other. Empty between the two.

When a capacitor is connected to a DC voltage source, an electric current flowing from the battery will make the capacitor store more charge. At a certain point in time, the capacitor will reach its maximum capacity whose value is equivalent to the battery voltage.

If Q is the charge of the capacitor, and V is the voltage, then the relationship between the two – which is fine – can be said to be proportional to the equation below:

Q \ is approximately V

Then if we enter a standard constant called capacitance (C), the above equation becomes:

Q = CV

If explored deeper, the capacitance value of the capacitor depends on 3 things: the permissivity value of the dielectric media used, the surface area of ​​the metal plate area, and the distance between the two.

Following is the relationship of three factors to the capacitance value:

C = \ dfrac {\ varepsilon A} {d}

Then, is it true the story above says that the capacitor after it is connected to the battery will become a new “battery”?

Of course not. There are some basic differences between batteries / capacitors and batteries. The following are:

Saving electrical energy in the form of chemical energy, Having a constant voltage value, Electrical energy that comes out of the battery lasts for a long time.


Saving electrical energy in the form of electrical charges, The voltage value is not constant, depending on the value of the voltage source connected to the capacitor, Electrical energy coming out of the capacitor if after charging it is connected to a load (resistor), only for a moment is of great value and is immediately lost.

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