PARADIGMS OF PROGRAMMING LANGUAGE

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Programming Language is an instruction to instruct the computer to be able to perform certain functions, but only standard instructions. we can use progamming language to create something, like web page, or a piece of software, or even just a pretty picture. That’s why computer programming is often described as a mix between art and science, it’s technical and analytical, yet creative at the same time. Programming language consists of many kinds lannguages, although many languages have in common, each has its own syntax.

            Each of the different programming languages mentioned in the next section can be broken into one or more of the following types (paradigms) of languages.

  • Procedural programming

In procedural programming written based on sequences, sequential and we must remember which procedures have been called and what has been changed. A program is a set of procedures for manipulating data. Procedure is a collection of instructions that are done sequentially. Fundamentally, the procedural code is the one that directly instructs a device on how to finish a task in logical steps. This paradigm uses a linear top-down approach and treats data and procedures as two different entities.  The advantages of procedural programming is excellent for general purpose programming

The coded simplicity along with ease of implementation of compilers and interpreters.

  • Functional Programming

Functional programming is a programming that performs computational processes as an evaluation of mathematical functions. Functional programming is often referred to as applicative programming because the functions that are applied into the argumentation are declarative and non-procedural. Functional programming is also based on the basic mathematical concepts of a function and all program code is functions. Because functional programming is based on mathematics, it will be easier to detect whether the program is true or not. The functional programming language is preferred for scientific and academic purposes, not for software and commercial development. However, there are several functional programming languages that are used for commercial use. As for the advantages of functional programming languages include:

  1. Short, functional programs are more complex than structured programs (2 to 10 times).
  2. Easy to understand, functional programs are easier to understand.
  3. There is no memory in the memory. Nothing can be resolved as an integer pointer, or run with a null pointer.
  4. The code can be reused. Functional programming languages use polymorphism, which will increase code reuse.
  5. Strong attachment.
  6. Structured Programming

Structured programming also was known as modular programming and is a subset of procedural programming. In essence structured programming as the name suggests, follows a sequential pattern hierarchical in nature. All the components are dependent on each other such as a gas pump and an engine. If the gas pump dies, the car dies. if we want to write a program using this paradigm then it will reduced complexity, easy to test and correct module by module. Almost any language can use structured programming techniques to avoid common pitfalls of unstructured languages. Unstructured programming must rely upon the discipline of the developer to avoid structural problems, and as a consequence may result in poorly organized programs. Most modern procedural languages include features that encourage structured programming. The characteristics of a structured program are run correctly (a reliable program), run efficiently (the program becomes simple / uncomplicated), be easy to read and understand (easy to read and trace), be easy to debug (the program can be traced easily), be easy to modify (the program is easily modified

  • Object Oriented Programming

is an object-oriented programming paradigm which is a method in making programs, with the aim to solve the complexity of various program problems that continue to increase. Objects are entities that have attributes, characters (bahavour) and sometimes are accompanied by conditions. The basic idea in OOP is to combine data and functions to access data into a unit that is known as an object. Objects are data structures that consist of data fields and methods along with their interactions to design applications and computer programs. All data and functions in this paradigm are wrapped in classes or objects. Each object can receive messages, process data, and send messages to other objects. The advantages of object oriented programming:

  1. Increase productivity. OOP classes and objects created for a problem can still be used again for other problems that use that object (reusable).
  2. Speed of development. Because the system is developed in a way that is good and right when analyzing and designing will make the coding made can be minimized error.
  3. Ease of maintenance. Because with the object-oriented model, patterns that tend to be fixed and stable can be separated and patterns that can change.
  4. There is consistency. Because of the inheritance and use of the same phases when analyzing, designing and coding.
  5. Improve software quality

Thus we can conclude that learning programming is very useful for us. we can do the work easily if we do it with the help of programming. then we need to know what are the benefits of learning programming such as:

  1. Programming teaches you about real life

Programming, as we know it is not easy to do. In programming, you will find out more mistakes you make once and try not to do it another time. Don’t be afraid of mistakes or failures. Programming can make you analyze errors and how to overcome them.

  • Programming makes you creative

Programmers work in the software world. Programming thinking in a way that other people don’t think of, is very structured rather than looking directly at the big picture and skipping the smallest details. When programmers are given problems to solve they don’t solve them right away. What they do is break it down into workable parts to the next stage.

  • Programming makes things easier
  • Imagine before, without a computer, no gadgets, nothing. Life is simple but before finishing something is too slow. For example, during elections. Before you have to write each of your chosen candidates’ names on paper, the election clerk will read one at a time and there are one million calculated to make the count take several months to complete.
  • Job Opportunities

Learn programming and see where you go. Moreover, employment opportunities are very large. In fact, architects and developers are among the highest paid jobs available in the world of work. A programmer can get one of the 5 highest paying jobs in Computer Science and the IT industry.

  • Coding teaches you how to be persistent

A programmer’s life is a kind of ‘trial, error and repeat’. They are trained to think logically. Something is not easy so in this way, they can think of better solutions to whatever problems they can face.

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