Definition of Oscilloscope
Oscilloscopes are electronic measuring devices that can map or project electrical signals and frequencies into graphical images that can be read and easily learned. By using an oscilloscope, we can observe and analyze the waveforms of electrical signals or frequencies in an electronic circuit. In general, the oscilloscope can display a two-dimensional (2D) graph with time on the X axis and voltage on the Y axis.
Oscilloscopes are widely used in industries such as research, science, engineering, medical and telecommunications. At present, there are 2 types of Oscilloscopes namely Analog Oscilloscopes that use CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) Technology to display electrical signals and Digital Oscilloscopes that use LCDs to display electrical or wave signals.
Characteristics of Oscilloscope Measurement
In addition to its basic features, most oscilloscopes are also equipped with measurement devices that can measure the frequency, amplitude and characteristics of electrical signal waves. In general, oscilloscopes can measure Time-based characteristics and also voltage-based characteristics
Time Based Characteristics
Frequency and Period – Frequency is the number of vibrations produced during 1 second expressed in Hertz. While the period is the opposite of Frequency, which is the time required to travel a vibration which is usually denoted by t in units of seconds. The ability of the oscilloscope to measure maximum frequency varies depending on the type of oscilloscope used. Some can measure 100MHz, some can measure 20MHz, some can only measure 5MHz.
Duty Cycle – Duty Cycle is the ratio of the time when the signal reaches the ON condition and when it reaches the OFF state within a signal period. In other words, the Work Cycle or Duty Cycle is a comparison of the length of the ON condition and the OFF condition of a signal in each period.
Rise and Fall Time – Rise Time is the time of signal change (duration) from low signal to high signal, for example from 0V to 5V. While Fall Time is the time of signal change (duration) from high signal to low signal, for example a change from 5V to 0V. This characteristic is very important in measuring the response of a series to the signal.
Voltage Based Characteristics
Amplitude – Amplitude is a measure of the magnitude of a signal or usually referred to as the height of the wave crest. There are several ways in measuring the amplitude of which are measurements from the highest peak to the lowest peak (Vpp), there is also a measure of only one peak either the highest or the lowest with the X or 0V axis.
Maximum and Minimum Voltage – The oscilloscope can easily display the Maximum and Maximum Voltage of an Electronic circuit.
Average Voltage – The oscilloscope can calculate the voltage of the signal it receives and display the average voltage results of the signal.
Oscilloscope Performance and Specifications
Not all oscilloscopes have the same performance, this depends on the specifications of the oscilloscope. Some important specifications on the oscilloscope that determine the performance of the oscilloscope include the following:
Bandwidth – Bandwidth determines the frequency range that can be measured by the oscilloscope. For example 100MHz, 20MHz or 10MHz
Digital or Analog – Oscilloscopes can be classified into 2 types namely Analog Oscilloscopes and Digital Oscilloscopes. Analog oscilloscopes use the measured voltage to move the electron beam in the picture tube to display the measured waveform. Whereas Digital Oscilloscopes use Analog to Digital Converter (ADC) to convert voltage quantities into digital quantities. In general, Analog Oscilloscopes have lower bandwidth or bandwidth, fewer features compared to Digital Oscilloscopes, but Analog Oscilloscopes have faster responses.
Number of Channels – Oscilloscopes that can read more than one signal at the same time and display them simultaneously on the screen. This capability depends on the number of channels it has. In general, oscilloscopes found on the market have 2 or 4 channels.
Sampling Rate – Sampling Rate is only for Digital Oscilloscopes namely the number of times the signal is read in one second.
Rise Time – The Rise Time specification on the oscilloscope shows how fast the oscilloscope measures changes in signal rising from lowest to highest.
Maximum Input Voltage – Every electronic device has an input voltage limit, including the Oscilloscope. If the signal exceeds the specified voltage limit, the oscilloscope will be damaged by it.
Vertical Sensitivity – Vertical sensitivity values indicate the ability of vertical reinforcement to amplify weak signals in the oscilloscope. This vertical sensitivity is measured in volts per div.
Time Base – Time Base shows the Sensitivity range on Horizontal or Time Axis. Time base value is measured in units of second per div.
Input Impedance – Input Impedance is used when measuring High Frequency. We can also use an oscilloscope probe for less impedance compensation.
Types of oscilloscopes
The types of oscilloscopes are divided into two namely analog oscilloscopes and digital oscilloscopes.
Where analog oscilloscopes use CTR (Cathode Ray Tube) technology to display electrical signals. While Digital Osilosko uses LCD to display electrical and wave signals. This type of analog oscilloscope is also called the glass tube oscilloscope. This type of oscilloscope has a faster response than Digital Oscilloscopes. But even so, Digital Oscilloscopes or often referred to as LCD oscilloscopes are more popular for use in this modern era.
Some of the advantages of digital oscilloscopes include the fact that this type of oscilloscope uses an LCD screen so that it is lighter. In addition, Digital Oscilloscopes can determine bandwidth more flexibly. Oscilloscope Specifications You Need to Know Just like any other measuring device. Oscilloscopes also have features that allow this tool to measure the frequency, amplitude, and wave of electrical signals. But not all Oscilloscopes have the same performance from one another.
One of the factors that influence the performance of this oscilloscope, among other things, is the specifications contained in the oscilloscope itself.
Some important specifications that are usually found in oscilloscopes include:
1. Oscilloscope Bandwidth (Bandwidth)
One of the specifications contained in the oscilloscope is bandwidth or bandwidth. Where this bandwidth determines the frequency range that can be measured by the oscilloscope.
2. Oscilloscope type
One of the things that affects the performance of the oscilloscope is the type of oscilloscope itself. Where the performance of the analog type oscilloscope will certainly differ in performance from the type of Digital Oscilloscope.
3. Number of Chanel (Channels).
The ability of an oscilloscope also depends on the number of channels or channels it has. Oscilloscopes can generally read more than one signal at the same time.
But that ability is also influenced by the number of channels it has. Generally on oscilloscopes circulating in the market have a number of channels 2 to 4.
4. Sampling Rate
Sampling rate only works for digital oscilloscopes. Which serves to count the number of times the signal to be read in one second.
5. Rise Time
One of the specifications contained in the oscilloscope is the rise time. Where this component has a function to measure how fast the oloscope makes measurements.
6. Vertical Sensitive
This sensitive vertical is measured by using Volts per Div which functions to strengthen the weak signal on the oscilloscope.
7. Input Impedance
Input impedance is usually used when the oscilloscope is measuring in high frequency.