A PC, laptop, smartphone or other device requires an operating system to be able to perform its functions optimally.

The operating system or in English is called the operating system (OS) to be a liaison between software – hardware – hardware (client).

This OS will arrange so that all of the above components can communicate properly so that they are able to serve the needs of the computer user or client.

Without an operating system, a device such as a computer, cellphone or game console cannot be used.

Because the OS is what will later govern all the devices that are in these tools.

  1. In General

Operating System is a software system that functions to manage the resources of the hardware (hardware) and software (Software), and is also used as a jurik (daemon) for computer programs.

Without an OS, the client cannot run the application program that is on their computer, except only the boot program.

The operating system has a systematic scheduling that includes the calculation of memory usage, data storage, data processing, and other resources.

Some of the tasks or tasks above should be done by software or software. But with the OS, this software does not need to do the task.

The part of the OS that will later carry out the core bag is known as the Kernel.

  1. According to the Expert
  2. Abraham Silberschatz, Galvin, Gagne (2003)

The operating system is a program that works as an intermediary between a client or user with computer hardware.

  1. Iim Rusyamsi

The operating system is software that has the task of controlling hardware and also the basic operation of other systems including running application programs.

  1. M. Suyanto

The operating system is a system that consists of several software components or software that has the function to control all activities that have been carried out by the computer.

  1. Indayudha Fery

The system is needed so that the computer can run all application programs and software in it.

  1. Sunarto

Software that can communicate directly with hardware.

  1. Mc Leod

A computer program that functions as a controller of hardware and software resources contained in the computer.

  1. Ali Zaki

An operating system is software or software that operates a computer.

  1. Haer Talib

The main program that directly interacts through languages ​​known by computer machines namely computer languages.

  1. Zainal Abidin

The first computer program that is inside a computer.
In general, the operating system consists of several parts, including:

Boot mechanism is to put the kernel into memory on the computer
The kernel is the core of an OS
Command Interpreter or shell, functions to read an input from the client
Libraries, is a provider of a collection of some basic functions and standards that can be called by other applications.
Driver, its function is to be able to deal with external hardware.

There are so many different kinds of operating systems that we can find. Some examples include the following:

MacOS (Macintosh Operating System)
Garuda OS (made in Indonesia)

In the opinion of Tanenbaum, the operating system has developed very rapidly and can be divided into four generations and one generation continued, including the following:

  1. The first generation (1945 – 1955).

The operating system in the first generation is the beginning of the development of electronic computing systems that are used as a substitute for mechanical computing systems.

The system on the computer is done manually because there is no operating system automatically. That means the OS does not yet support work services that can be done on 1 series.

  1. The second generation (1955 – 1965).

In the second generation computer systems have introduced the so-called BPS (batch processing system) which is a task that is done in a series, then will be executed sequentially.

Even though the computer system is not yet equipped with an operating system, there are several functions of the operating system that already exist.

  1. The third generation (1965 – 1960).

In the third generation the development of the operating system has evolved to serve many users at one time.

Which is the user or the user can communicate through the terminal online to another computer, so the operating system can be said to be multi-user (widely used by users at once).

While for multi programing (or serving many programs at one time).

So we can draw conclusions if this generation of OS has supported the existence of Multi-Programming, Multi-User and Batch Procurement System (Multi-Task) services.

  1. The fourth generation (1980s – post 1980s).

As we have seen, the operating system is used to support computer networks. Which is the user or the user is aware of the existence of computers connected to each other.

This fourth generation has introduced a Graphical User Interface, abbreviated as GUI.

That means the OS already has a display that has the capital of a mouse. Where End-Users can run applications / software / programs.

  1. “Next Generation”

In the next generation, the name of the system has been introduced in an Operating System, and there is already a uSystem Operating (Mobile) that works on mobile devices such as: PDA, Poket PC, or others.

This generation has also introduced virtual network operating system technology. So that in a network only installed 1 Operating System in the device whose function is to become a Server.

And also has been introduced the Cross Platform Operating System which means it can combine 2 different Operating Systems at once such as: Linux with Windows.
The following is the development of the operating system from the 1980s, starting from the development of DOS, Mac, Windows, BSD, to Linux.

  1. In 1956.

GM-NAAI / O: The first operating system that was first implemented by General Motors in a large computer IBM 704. However, this OS is no more powerful than Batch Processing.

  1. 1969

Unix: This modern operating system was first developed by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie who at that time needed a fast platform to be implemented in their “Space Travel” game.

  1. 1973

XeroxAlto: This first system used graphical interfaces that were only used in research until 1981.

  1. 1980

QDOS: Tim Paterson from Seattle Computer wrote QDOS made from the well-known OS at that time, CP / M.

QDOS (Quick and Dirty Operating System) is then marketed by Seatle Computer as 86-DOS because it has been designed in an Intel 8086 processor.

Microsoft: Bill Gates from Microsoft then bought a QDOS license and then sold it to various computer companies.

  1. 1981

PC DOS: IBM then launched a DOS PC that was purchased from Microsoft to be incorporated into its computer on an Intel 8086 base processor.

MS DOS: Microsoft uses the name MS DOS to apply to this OS if it is sold by companies outside of IBM.

  1. 1983 – 1985

MS DOS 2.0: Version 2.0 of MS DOS is launched on PC XT computers.

System 1.0: Apple then launched the Macintosh with its first OS from BSD UNIX. System 1.0 is the first OS that has been based on graphics and has used a mouse.

MS DOS 3.0: Microsoft introduced MS DOS 3.0 on an AT PC that uses an Intel 80286 chip and that starts supporting more than 10MB of hard disk usage.

MS Windows 1.0: Microsoft has introduced MS Windows, this operating system already provides an environment with graphics (GUI) and multitasking capabilities. But unfortunately, this OS has very poor performance and is unable to match Apple’s success.

Novell Netware: Novell then launched an OS based on the Netware 86 network that was made for the Intel 8086 processor.

  1. 1988 – 1990

MS DOS 4.0: Microsoft released MS DOS 4.0 in a graphical state.

WWW: World Wide Web Proposal (WWW) published by Tim Berners Lee.

Farewell: Two giant companies split up, IBM then runs OS / 2 and Microsoft concentrates on Windows.

Windows 3.0: Microsoft then created Windows version 3.0 which received a pretty good reception.

MS Office: Microsoft already has Word, Excel, and PowerPoint to get rid of rivals like Lotus 1 2 3, Word Perfect Wordstar, and Quattr.

  1. 1991 – 1995 1991

Linux 0.01: A Helsinki student named Linus Torvalds successfully developed an Unix-based OS from the Minix operating system which was later given the name Linux.

MS DOS 5.0: Microsoft introduced MS DOS 5.0 with the addition of facilities such as full-screen editor, unformat, undelete, and Qbasic.


Windows 3.1: Microsoft introduced Windows 3.1 and then Windows for Workgroups 3.11 the following year.


Windows NT: Microsoft introduced Windows NT, with its first graphical OS without using DOS in it and planned for a network server.

Web Browser: NCSA launches Mosaic, which is a web browser to surf the internet.

MS DOS 6.0: Microsoft launches MS DOS 6.0 Upgrade, which includes the DoubleSpace hard disk compression program.


FreeDOS: Jim Hall is a student from the University of Wisconsin River Falls Development and has developed FreeDOS.

FreeDOS was created after Microsoft intended to stop supporting DOS, which would be replaced by Windows 95.


Windows 95: Microsoft introduced Windows 95 with the song Start Me Up from the Rolling Stones and has sold more than 1 million copies in just over 4 days.

  1. Year 1996 – 2000. 1996

Windows NT 4.0: Microsoft introduced Windows NT version 4.0


Mac OS: Apple for the first time introduced the use of an OS called Mac OS on Mac OS 7.6.


Windows 98: Internet Explorer web browser has become the most important part in Windows 98 and successfully defeated the dominance of Netscape Navigator.

Google: The best search engine that is present on the internet and is known to have used Linux as its main server.


Corel Linux: Corel has successfully created the Corel Draw program, which previously provided a Linux version of Word Perfect. Then helped make the OS with a Linux base called Corel Linux and then changed its name to Xandros.


Mac OS / X: Mac OS has been replaced by a BSD Unix-based machine with a kernel called Mac OS / X.

Windows 2000: Microsoft introduced Windows 2000 as the successor to Windows NT.

Windows Me: Microsoft introduced Windows Me with the latest version of Windows 95.

China Goes Linux: Red Flag Linux was introduced from the People’s Republic of China.

  1. 2001 – 2005 2001

Windows XP: Microsoft launches Windows XP.


Open Office: Office programs that are already based on Open Source were first launched by Sun Microsystems.

Local OS: OS made by children of a country based on Linux began to emerge, such as: Trustix Merdeka, RimbaLinux, WinBI, Komura.


Windows 2003: Microsoft introduces Windows Server 2003.


Dead-end: The first version of Ubuntu that was launched at once distributed throughout the world. There are several versions of the distribution that have been released, including:

    Ubuntu (based on Gnome)
    Kubuntu (KDE based)
    Xubuntu (XFCE based)
    Edubuntu (for education).

Mandriva: Mandrake then joined Conectiva and changed his name to Mandriva.

  1. 2006 – 2012 2006

Unbreakable Linux: Oracle also makes distributions based on Linux which were launched from Red Hat Enterprise.

CHIPLux: Local distributions also appeared this year, even CHIP Magazine, which has provided more discussion about Windows, is not behind making a Linux distro with the name CHIPLux, which was launched from a local distro called PC LINUX from the PCLinuxOS family (Mandriva variant).

CHIPLux is the first local distribution that is distributed on DVD format.


Vista: Microsoft launches Windows Vista.

Windows Vista has introduced a 3D Desktop feature with the use of SideBar, Aero Glass, and Flip 3D.

But unfortunately, all the features above must be paid handsomely with the need for very high computer specifications.


3D OS: 3D Desktop on Linux has emerged with very light computer specifications, unlike Windows Vista, which is very high.

The era of the presence of 3D Desktop technology in Indonesia has also been marked by the existence of the 3D OS operating system developed by LINUX PC.

There are several versions that have been provided, namely the 3D OS version for general users and also versions of Linux cafe distributions and Linux game centers.


Windows7: This Operating System is a refinement of the previous operating system made by Microsoft. Can be called if this OS is the best OS available at the present time.


Windows 8: Microsoft has launched an operating system, Windows 8.

This OS has a very attractive appearance compared to the previous generation of windows.

  1. 2014 – 2015

Windows 10: This is the latest OS launched by Microsoft.

Windows 10 has the most complete and comprehensive display of Windows than the previous Windows version so it is more appropriate to be called Windows 10 because 10 refers to the number of perfection.

This Windows was introduced on September 30, 2014, and was released in 2015.
OS evolution

  1. Batch System

Namely in gathering tasks (commands) or similar activities to then be executed by the CPU.

  1. Time Sharing System

Often also called Multitasking, which is executed by the CPU by moving between tasks.

  1. Computer Personal Systems

Personal computer systems are created by the increasingly inexpensive hardware and the tendency of computers to be used as single users.

  1. Distributed System

Each resource can be shared by usage on all computers that are joined in a system.

  1. Real Time System

Real time system is a system that must produce an appropriate response to a predetermined time limit.

This realtime system is a system whose logical truth is based on the truth of the results of the system output and the timeliness of the results will be issued.

Based on the time constraints it has, the Realtime System is divided into 3 parts, namely:

  1. Hard Real time

Hard Real-Time System (HRTS)

A hard real-time system requires completion of critical tasks with a guaranteed guaranteed time.

Or in another definition mentioned if the control of the hard real-time system can tolerate delays no more than 100 micro seconds.

  1. Soft Real time.

Computing on a soft real-time (SRTS) system has some flexibility, although only a little.

In this SRTS system various critical processes will receive more priority compared to other processes.

The general goal is that the system can support high-speed graphics, multimedia, and also variations of tasks that are unacceptable in environments that do not support computing soft systems in real time.

  1. Real time firm

The deadline will be very rarely tolerated, but can reduce the quality of the service system. The usefulness of the result is zero after the time limit is over.
The goal in studying the operating system is to be able to design it yourself and also be able to modify an existing system according to our needs.

In order to be able to choose an alternative to the operating system that will be used and maximize the use of the operating system so that the concepts and techniques of the operating system can be applied in other applications.
The operating system has a variety of vital functions that are in the computer. The following are some of the functions of the operating system, including:

Resource manager is the management of resources while allocating them. For example: CPU, memory, disk drives and other devices.
Coordinator, coordinating as well as providing facilities so that complex activities can be arranged and can be processed sequentially.
Interface or face to face, is as an intermediary media between the user with hardware or hardware that provides a view of the user that is easier to understand and friendly.
Guardian, provides access control and its duty to protect files while monitoring data and programs.
Optimizer, is a scheduling input (input) made by the user, the process of computing database access, and its users.
Gate Keeper, functions to control user access rights in controlling who has the right to enter the system and supervise what they will do.
Accountant, functions to manage CPU time, memory usage, I / O calling, disk storage, and terminal connection time.
Servers, serve to serve computer users, manage resources as well as allocate them. For example: CPU, memory, disk drives and other devices.

Based on the number of users and programs that are run, the operating system is divided into four types, including:

  1. Single user – Single Tasking

One computer is used by one user and can run one program at a time.

  1. Multi User – Single Tasking

One computer can be used by many users, and each user can run one program at a time.

  1. Single User – Multi Tasking

One computer can be used by one user and can run many programs at one time.

  1. Multi user – Multi Tasking

One computer can be used by many users.
OS type
Here are some types of operating systems, including:

  1. Stand alone

A stand-alone operating system is a complete OS that works on both desktop computers and mobile devices.

Some of these operating systems are also known as client operating systems because this OS can work together with network operating systems.

This OS can work with a network or without a network though, because basically a stand-alone OS is included with the ability to network so that it will allow users to create a network.

  1. Network

Network Operating System is an operating system specifically created to support a network. Or in general this OS is in a server on a computer network.

  1. Embedded

Embedded operating systems are generally present in mini computers such as smartphones, OS embedded on the ROOM chip on a mini computer.

  1. Live CD

Live CD operating system is a system that can be run using CD ROOM or without using an OS that is stored on the hard disk.

At first, the OS was made from a stand-alone operating system whose functions were minimized, so that it was run using a DVD or USB disk.

  1. Special objectives

This operating system was created specifically for the purpose of the small scale to a larger scale operating system.

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