Nanotechnology is a branch of science that focuses on materials ranging in size from 1 to 100 nanometers (1 nm = 10 -9 meters). Basically, nanotechnology is the expansion of the sciences that are available to the nanoscale. And also an extension of existing sciences to the nanoscale.
One of the most important aspects of nanoscale is that the smaller the objects, the greater the ratio between the surface area and the solid content. One of the most important aspects of nanoscale is that the smaller the object, the greater the ratio between surface area and volume.
Nano-technology is the manufacture and use of materials or devices at very small sizes. This material or device is in the realm of 1 to 100 nanometers (nm). One nm is the same as one-per-billion meters (0.000000001 m), which is 50,000 times smaller than the size of a human hair. Scientists call these sizes in the 1 to 100 nm realm as nanoscale, and the material in this realm is called nanocrystals or nanomaterials.
Nano Technology Application
Nano technology is the technology of the future. It is estimated that in the next 5 years aspects of human life will use products with nanotechnology that are applied in the following fields:
1. Medical Treatment
Molecules in the nanoscale that are multifunctional for detecting cancer and for delivering drugs directly to target cells.
Most of the drugs and cosmetics on the market today work less than optimal due to their active substances:
- Has a low solubility rate.
- Requires fat to dissolve.
- Easily aggregated into large particles
- Not easily absorbed and digested
Nanotechnology breakthroughs in the fields of cosmetics and medicine are able to create cosmetic ingredients and medicines with far better effectiveness. An example is the use of liposomes in drug and cosmetics formulas.
Liposomes are spherical vesicles with membranes made of two layers of phospholipids (phospholipid bilayers), which are used to deliver drugs or genetic material into cells.
The phospholipid bilayer portion of the liposome can be fused with other bilayers such as cell membranes, so that the content of liposomes can be delivered to the cell. By making liposomes in drug or cosmetics formulas, finally the material that cannot pass through the cell membrane can be passed through. The benefits of the delivery system for active cosmetics using liposomes of 90 nm are as follows:
- Has the ability to deliver active substances to the lower layers of the skin.
- Able to deliver active substances faster, so faster recovery is also obtained.
By using textile nanoparticles, clothing will become easier to clean. The addition of silver to the sock also has the effect of reducing odor on the feet. But lately the researchers warn that not all product shirts containing silver will be safe for the environment. This is because at the time of washing, the product is not good, silver will be included in the washing water. This can cause negative effects on aquatic biota. Apart from silver, TiO2 is used for UV cut too. Examples that are commonly used are the umbrella.
5. Care Products
TiO3 and SiO2 are used as UV cut while apatite is used in toothpaste. And silver is also used in plaster to prevent infection and gold nanoparticles are used in pregnancy tests
These nanoparticles are used to make sports equipment stronger, better and more efficient. For example on Yonex brand rackets that use carbon fiber.
7. Home Improvement
Titania is used in tiled paint to create its own cleaning effect.
8. Household Products
Used in glass, ceramics, shoes for various coatings.
9. For Energy Saving
Energy waste, especially in Indonesia, is indeed more due to inefficient use patterns or more related to the culture and lifestyle of the people. But actually a lot of technology that can be applied to change or minimize energy-intensive lifestyles, as happened in Indonesia.
Nanotechnology in Indonesia
The Indonesian Institute of Sciences has been developing nanotechnology since the 2000s but has not been able to commercialize it. The most fundamental thing that impedes the development of nanotechnology in Indonesia is the absence of nanomaterial measurement tools (metrology). Bambang Subiyanto, Head of the LIPI Innovation Center stated that it has been 13 years the development of nanotechnology in Indonesia is running so that the current stage of the target is the commercialization of nanomaterial products based on research activities.
The Role of Nano Technology in IT
The role of nano technology in IT (information technology), is no doubt. Increasing computer speed from time to time, increasing hard disk and memory capacity, getting smaller and increasing cell phone functions, are concrete examples of nanotechnology products in the IT field. Nano technology’s contribution in IT development can be broadly divided into three, namely:
1. Increasing the density of the number of devices
2. Allows the Application of Quantum Effects
3. Adding new functions to the system
The addition of new functions to the existing system makes the material the same in small sizes. But it creates a new function when atoms or molecules of different types are arranged in a device system.
Nanotechnology has been used in agriculture such as nano seed and fertilizer modification, food packaging techniques, environmentally friendly energy and tissue engineering. Nanotechnology itself can also assist in the production or repair of tissue damage artificially stimulated by using cell poliferation. Application of nano technology in agriculture will be able to assist farmers in increasing agricultural productivity, product quality to the use of resources. So in the end this can reduce agricultural costs and increase income.
Benefits of Nanotechnology in Human Life
- Industry Sector
- Space Field
- Earthquake Resistant Technology Field
- Information Technology
Impact of Nanotechnology
- Cleaner environment through various new methods of water purification and removal of various impurities from groundwater and soil.
2. In the energy sector, more efficient solar cells have been obtained, lighter and stronger windmills, and lighter cars which have resulted in lower fuel use.
3. In the field of health, cancer detection and treatment is much better and easier, and other medical conditions.
4. In the automotive field, smart tires, anti-fog windows, and spare parts of stronger cars are brilliant inventions due to nanotechnology.
5. In the field of defense, sensors in the detection of chemical and biological weapons. In addition, the presence of nanotechnology has created high-performance materials used in defense.
6. In daily use, anti-dirty cloth and improving the quality of sports equipment.
7. In the electronics field, instruments are now faster and more sophisticated. Moreover, it can be carried everywhere because it is lighter and holds more energy and information.
8. 6 million people currently work in Companies in the field of nanotechnology. In addition, the nanotechnology market worldwide can reach $ 1 billion USD.