Surgery is a medical science that focuses on the use of surgical techniques to research and cure health problems caused by illness or serious injury. Surgery is carried out for many purposes, such as improving bodily functions, beautifying physical appearance, or repairing damaged or destroyed body parts.

Surgical procedures are usually called operations or surgical procedures, so they can be distinguished from surgery as medical science. Surgery is a special treatment method that uses surgical equipment and is usually carried out by a team consisting of surgeons, assistant surgeons, anesthetists, surgical nurses, and surgical technicians. All surgical procedures can be completed in minutes or hours, depending on the type and disease being treated. However, surgery is not an outpatient procedure.

With a variety of surgical procedures, various methods of preparation and pre-surgical care are needed. Before undergoing surgery, patients must first undergo a medical examination, then they will be assessed by the ASA physical status classification system. If patients are judged to be able to undergo surgery, they will be asked to give their consent, which is needed to obtain a surgical permit. Moments before surgery are used to carry out surgical preparations, such as conducting an autologous blood donation program several weeks before surgery which is expected to cause the patient to lose a lot of blood.

After surgery, patients will also be given instructions on how to care for their bodies until they have fully recovered. A few days after surgery, the patient will be closely monitored; this process can be done in a hospital, in a large surgical case or requires an incision, or at the patient’s home. Patients are also usually given medicines to speed up the recovery process and reduce the risk of post-surgical complications.

Surgical surgery is the treatment method most often performed to treat a medical condition or disease. But of course not all diseases or bodily functions can be cured by surgery. Each type of surgical procedure has a different purpose, procedure and purpose. Next you need to know about the various types of surgical operations, as a provision of information in case one day the doctor suggests to undergo surgery. Not all patients who need surgery must undergo it immediately. First, the patient will be examined to ensure that the surgical benefits are greater than the danger to the patient. In some cases, the patient’s condition may be too sensitive or weak, so they cannot undergo surgery. Therefore, all patients will be examined first. After being confirmed to undergo surgery, patients will be given permission to follow the surgery.

Different Types of Surgical Operations, Different Objectives

Surgical procedures are basically divided into three large groups, in which they will still be divided according to their categories, namely:

1. Group Operations by Purpose

This first group classifies surgical procedures based on the purpose of this medical procedure. Basically surgery is considered a method of treatment, but this medical procedure can also be used to:

Diagnose. Operations are used to diagnose certain diseases, such as biopsy operations that are often done to confirm the possibility of solid cancer or tumors in certain parts of the body.
Prevent. Not only treat, surgery is also done to prevent a condition that is even worse. For example, surgical removal of intestinal polyps which, if left untreated, can grow into cancer.
Eliminate. This operation is carried out with the aim of removing a number of tissues in the body. Usually, this type of operation has a -ectomy suffix. For example, masketomi (removal of the breast) or hysterectomy (removal of the uterus)
Restore. Surgery is also done to be able to restore a bodily function to normal again. For example, the breasts are performed by people who have had a mastectomy.
Palliative. This type of surgery is intended to reduce the pain felt by people who usually experience chronic end-stage disease.

2. Operations Group According to Risk Level

Every surgical operation certainly has risks, but the level of risk is certainly different. The following is a grouping of operations based on the level of risk:

Major surgery, which is a surgery performed on parts of the body such as the head, chest, and abdomen. One example of this operation is organ transplant surgery, brain tumor surgery, or heart surgery. Patients who undergo this surgery usually need a long time to recover.
Minor surgery, as opposed to major surgery, does not require the patient to have to wait long to recover. Even in some types of operations, sufferers are allowed to go home the same day. Examples of operations such as biopsy of breast tissue.

3. Engineering Based Operations Group

The surgery itself can be done with a variety of different techniques, depending on which part of the body must be operated on and what disease is contracted. So what operating techniques are there?

Open surgical operation. This method is usually called conventional surgery, which is a medical procedure that makes an incision in a part of the body using a special knife. An example is a heart operation, the doctor cuts the chest of the sufferer and opens it so that the heart’s organs are clearly visible.

Laparoscopy. If the operation was previously done by cutting on a part of the body, on a laparoscopy, the surgeon will only cut a little and let an instrument such as a hose into the hole that has been made, to find out the problems that occur in the body.

4. Surgery based on timing

Elective surgery – This surgery is performed to treat a disease that does not endanger the patient’s life and is only performed at the request of the patient.

Emergency surgery – Emergency surgery aims to save the life of the patient or a part of the patient’s body. This surgery should usually be done after the patient has an accident or injury that causes trauma.

Semi-elective surgery – Semi-elective surgery is performed to prevent the effects or effects of an illness or injury, but does not have to be done immediately. This surgery can be delayed for a while.

5. Surgery based on body parts

Types of surgery based on body parts are numerous; some of them are:

Heart surgery – Surgery performed on the heart.

Bone surgery – A surgical procedure performed to treat abnormalities in bones and muscles.\

Digestive Tract Surgery – Surgery on the digestive tract can overcome certain abnormalities in the digestive tract and various body organs related to the digestive tract.


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