Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) has been widely used in factories which is very useful to support supply chain management and control. RFID can identify objects automatically, RFID can be predicted to replace barcodes that are already known, According to Weis “One familiar optical barcode is the Universal Produck Code (UPC) designed in 1973 and is widely used in many products for consumers. Progress in the production of silicon makes RFID inexpensive. RFID systems consist of radio frequency tags or transponders and tag readers or receivers. The tag reader requests the contents emitted by an RF signal.
According to Arianto, RFID technology relies on wireless data transmission over the electro magnetic field. The heart of this technology is a device called an RFID tag. RFID tags are an identification label containing a programmable chip, equipped with a mini antenna. RFID tags can be read with a computer-controlled reader without the need for direct line-of-sight as well as barcode readers. This reader range can reach one meter. So that information stored on the chip can be read, the reader emits an electro-magnetic frequency field received by a mini antenna on the RFID tag. Through this electronic relationship, the stored data can be read, processed and edited. This integrated chip power is supplied through the radio frequency field emitted by the reader, so RFID does not require a separate power source.
According to Wilkinson, Simplifying the integration of RFID devices with affordable business applications makes companies able to get many business benefits from RFID.
1. RFID system and workings
An RFID system can consist of several components, such as tags, tag readers, tag programming stations, circulation readers, sorting equipment and sticks
inventory tag. Security can be achieved in two ways. Security door can be
do a query to determine the security status or RFID tags contain bits
security that can be on or off when brought near to the reader station.
The purpose of this RFID system is to send data from a portable device, called a tag, and then read by an RFID reader and then processed by a computer application that needs it. The data transmitted and transmitted earlier can contain various information, such as ID, location information or other information such as price, color, date of purchase and so on.
In a simple RFID system, an object is equipped with a small and inexpensive tag. The tag contains a transponder with a digital memory chip which contains a unique product code. Instead, the interrogator, an antenna that contains transceivers and decoders, emits a signal that can activate RFID tags so that he can read and write data into it. When an RFID tag passes through an electromagnetic zone, it detects an activation signal emitted by the reader. The reader will decode the data in the tag and then the data will be processed by the computer.
2. Use of RFID
a. Low frequency
RFID tags are widely used for identification in animals, beer keg tracking, car keylocks and anti-theft systems. Pets are often attached with small chips so they can be returned to their owners if lost. In the United States, there are two RFID frequencies used, namely 125 kHz (the original standard) and 134.5 kHz (which is the international standard).
b. High-frequency RFID tags are often used in libraries or bookstores, pallet tracking, access control in buildings, baggage tracking on aircraft and apparel item tracking. This is also widely used in badge identification, replacing the presence of a previous magnetic card. This badge only needs to be held within a certain distance and the reader can immediately recognize who the badge holder is. The American Express Blue credit card currently contains high-frequency RFID tags.
c. UHF RFID
Tags are often used commercially on pallet and container tracking, truck and trailer tracking at sea ports.
RFID tags are often used in remote access control of motor vehicles.
3. RFID Implementation
a. Some toll gates, such as FasTrak in California, the I-Pass system in Illinois and also the South Luzon Expressway E-Pass in the Philippines are already using RFID tags for their electronic toll collection. The RFID tag will be read immediately when a motorized vehicle passes the toll gate and the information will be used to debit the toll account. This of course will speed up the existing traffic at toll gates which were previously often jammed. Other examples such as seismic sensors can be read using RFID transceivers so that it will simplify the process of data retrieval.
b. In January 2003, Michelin, a leading tire manufacturer, announced that it had begun testing RFID transponders embedded into the tires of their products. After the testing process which took 18 months, they promised to offer tires equipped with RFID to car manufacturers. Their goal is to create a tire tracking system that complies with US law, the TREAD Act (Transportation, Recall, Enhancement, Accountability and Documentation Act).
c. Cards equipped with RFID have also begun to be used in general as an electronic cash medium, such as the Octopus Card in Hong Kong and so on.
d. Starting in the 2004 model year, the “SmartKey” option already exists on the Toyota Prius and also some models on the Lexus, where the car keys are equipped with RFID tags so the car can recognize the key within 3 feet of the sensor. Drivers can open car doors and start the car when the car keys are still in a bag or pocket.
e. In August 2004, the Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction (ODRH) approved a contract valued at USD $ 415,000 to try tracking technology in collaboration with Alanco Technologies. This will be used by inmates who are able to detect prisoners who are trying to release this device and will send it to the computer system in the prison. This project is not the first in a prison in the United States, because other prisons in Michigan, California and ironically already apply the same technology.
f. RFID chips that can be implanted in animals can also be implanted in the human body. A company called Applied Digital Solutions proposes an RFID chip that can be implanted under the skin as a solution to identify fraud, access to buildings, access to computers, keep a person’s health records and also to anti-kidnap systems. The Baja Beach Club in Barcelona, Spain uses the implanted Verichip to identify their VIP customers.
g. Amal Graafstra, an American businessman, had implanted herself with an RFID chip, precisely in her left hand, in early 2005. The chip was 2 mm long and 2 mm in diameter. The chip has a reading range of two inches (or 50 mm). The implant procedure is carried out by a cosmetic surgeon.
4. RFID V.S UPC / EAN barcode
RFID tags are often considered as a substitute for UPC or EAN barcodes. This
because RFID has a variety of advantages compared to the use of barcodes. They may not completely replace barcode technology, due to price factors, but in some cases later the use of RFID will be very useful. Unique codes stored in RFID can also be long compared to limited UPC codes. The uniqueness of the RFID code means that it can be traced from one location to another up to the hands of customers. This can help companies fight theft and other forms of product loss. RFID has also been proposed for use at point-of-sale which replaces the cashier with an automatic machine without having to do barcode scanning. This, however, must be accompanied by a fall in the price of RFID tags to make them widely available in the community.
5. Strengths and Weaknesses of RFID
1. More data can be stored than other tools (approximately 2000 bytes)
2. Very small size (for passive type of RFID) so it is easy to be implanted everywhere
3. The shape and design are flexible so it is very easy to use in various places and uses because RFID chips can be made from special ink
4. Reading information is very easy, because the shape and the field do not affect the reading, as often happens with barcodes, magnetic etc.
5. Flexible reading distances depend on the antenna and the type of RFID chip used. For example autopayment on toll roads, stock counts on conveyor belts, access gates.
6. Speed in data reading.
1. Information chaos will occur if there is more than 1 RFID chip through 1 reader simultaneously, because there will be a crash of information received by the reader (this obstacle can be resolved by the ability to speed the data reception so that the incoming RFID chip will be considered as data later the next one)
2. If there is an overlap freq (two freqs from the reader are in one area) can provide incorrect data information on the computer / data processor so that the level of insurance will be reduced (this problem is solved by implementing the freq collision detection tool or arranging the placement of the reading area so that it can collision avoidance)
3. Interference will occur if there is another freq emitted by other equipment that is not intended for RFID, so the chip will respond to the freq (Wifi freq, cellphone, radio transmitter, etc.)
4. Someone’s privacy will automatically be reduced, because anyone can read information from someone remotely as long as the person has a reader, for example someone can read the amount of money that someone else has in their wallet.