Today, the internet plays an important role in daily life. The influence of the internet has penetrated into human activities every day. Almost every type of household equipment is now connected to the internet and can communicate with each other, and this is called the internet of things (IoT). It is undeniable that the influence of the internet of things has a huge impact in facilitating human life. However, all technology created by humans is definitely not perfect. Every technology must have its own weaknesses and vulnerabilities.
IoT is now part of the future of the internet in the world, especially in Indonesia. IoT has a network infrastructure that is widespread throughout the world that is connected to various objects and devices. These connected objects have their own identities and can communicate with other devices on the internet. These devices such as computers, mobile phones, tabs, and washing machines. IoT is a collection of objects that are interconnected in a large network. The devices used have micro chips. This micro chip detects the surrounding environment and sends its data to the network as well as humans do. The best part of IoT is that each entity can communicate with each other and can be seen through the internet. Internet of Things (IoT) is a network of physical devices, vehicles, buildings, and other objects that are planted with electronic devices, software, sensors, and networks that are connected and collect and exchange data. Simply put, IoT is a network of objects / devices planted with sensors, software, network connectivity and electronic needs that allow objects / devices to collect and exchange data to be responsive.
The Internet of Things covers almost every area of our lives. Some of them are as follows:
A. Environmental Monitoring
Environmental monitoring is carried out using sensors and by monitoring atmospheric conditions such as air and water quality. Wildlife is also monitored to find out their habitat. Monitoring results are used to develop ways to save the environment better.
B. Infrastructure Management
One prominent application is the process for monitoring and controlling infrastructure operations such as roads, bridges and railroad lines, etc. Changes in structural conditions can endanger safety and increase risk, so they can be monitored by IoT infrastructure management. The results of this application can also be a reference to improve service quality.
Direct manufacturing optimization can be achieved. Production and supply can be managed using sensors and control systems. This also leads to the efficiency of making new products.
D. Home Automation
Information about gas, water and electricity can be sent to their utility company automatically. This process can improve resource efficiency. The home automation process can manipulate devices, such as washing machines, air conditioners, windows, doors, lighting, and refrigerators.
IoT technology was first used in this sector. The integration of light sensors, GPS and GSM is used in the transportation sector. Vehicles can act as entities and communicate with each other as well as with road side infrastructure. Sensors inside the vehicle can be used to avoid collisions, traffic management and provide space for parking.
F. Medical and Health Care Systems
The medical and health fields are one promising field of IoT technology. Patient vital parameters can be transmitted by medical devices to platforms such as cloud safe to store and analyze. Special care can be given to patients with elderly and chronic diseases.
The operational perspective of the IoT device is important because this is the way the device is connected and communicating. The communication models are categorized into four models as follows:
A. Communication Device to Device
In this model, two or more devices are connected directly and communicate with each other. No intermediary application server is used. IoT devices are able to communicate in various types of networks. Usually these devices make connections using technology such as Bluetooth, Zigbee, etc. In device to device network, all devices follow protocols for communicating and exchanging messages. Applications such as home automation systems exchange data over low bandwidth. IoT devices such as door locks, light switches and light bulbs often communicate with low bandwidth in a home automation system.
B. Communication of the Device to the Cloud
In this model, internet cloud services such as application service providers are used to communicate and exchange data. A connection is made between the device and the IP network using Wi-Fi or Ethernet. This type of communication model is used by large organizations such as Samsung SmartTV. In this model, an internet connection is used to send user display data to Samsung for analysis. This model provides value to end users by enhancing device capabilities.
C. Device to Gateway Model
In this model, the application layer gateway (ALG) service is used to connect IoT devices to cloud services. Here, application software acts as an intermediary between devices and cloud services and operates on a local gateway device to provide security and data translation. In most cases, smart phones with applications to communicate with devices act as local gateways and transmit data to cloud services. Devices such as fitness trackers cannot communicate directly with cloud services. Therefore, they depend on smart phone applications to send data to the cloud.
D. Back-End data sharing models
In this model, the communication architecture helps users to export data and also analyzes smart object data from various sources including cloud services. Data is then uploaded to a different application service provider. Architecture also helps collect data and analyze it. An industrialist will be interested in analyzing plant energy consumption by collecting data generated by IoT sensors and utility systems. Sharing back-end data allows us to access data and analyze it.
The Internet of Things connects heterogeneous devices together through internet media to exchange important information. IoT has made human life simpler and more comfortable by gradually changing technology and applications according to people’s standards. The fields of medical, governance, education, industry, production, transportation use the best IoT. IoT challenges limit growth and progress. Security and privacy are the biggest challenges against IoT in the recent era. Security issues sometimes confuse users whether to use IoT or not. The existing security framework supports and limits security attacks and weaknesses in IoT to some degree. Some important improvements such as; monitoring security threats from the starting point, Authentication of suspected devices, Identification of unauthorized devices. Some security planning, etc. indispensable for making IoT safe and reliable.