Linux is an open source based operating system . Kernel system operation of Linux created by Linus Torvalds in the year 1991 when he still was in a period of study at the University of Helsinki , Finland.
Originally Linux is a project like that done by Linus Tovards to develop the source code of Minix . Minix itself is a type / derivative of Unix that was developed in the POSIX project which was started by IEEE (The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers)
System Operations Unix implemented by the researchers at AT & T’s Bell Laboratories in the year 1969. Then was released for the first time in the year 1971 in the language of the assembly, before it is converted into a language C in the year 1973.
The use of language -level height makes Unix can be used on various platforms computers are different . Unix into growing rapidly because of AT & T provides the license is free. But at the 1984 AT & T to separate themselves from Bell Labs, since the Bell Labs began selling Unix as a product that is paid .
In the year 1983, Richard Stallman started the GNU Project, which aims to create a version full of systems Unix entirely put on free software. In the year 1985 created the Free Software Foundation and licensed general of GNU was written in the year 1989.
In the early 1990s, several programs needed in the Operating System were successfully completed , although there were still some elements that were not yet complete including the kernel . Linus Torvalds stated if the years it has provided the kernel of the GNU then he is not going to make their own version .
Andrew S. Tanenbaum released MINIX in the year 1987 as a version miniature of OS Unix addressed to the students who want to understand the principle of the OS. Here are used as a reference by Linus Torvalds when it still be a student
In the year 1991, Linus Torvalds, who still lectures at the University of Helsinki became intrigued with the OS and feel frustrated because the license for MINIX which time it only could be used for the purposes of education . Eventually he began to make his own kernel which later became the Linux Kernel.
Linus began developing the Linux Kernel in MINIX until it became more mature . The GNU application replaces all MINIX components to be more free to use the free code of the GNU Project, because the GNU GPL license can be used in other computer programs as long as it is released using the same license .
Linus also changed the MINIX license to the GNU GPL license. The developers began to perform the integration between components of GNU with Linux Kernel and produce a free OS that is functioning as a whole .
Initially Linus Torvalds wanted to give the name of Freax which came from a mixture of free, freak, and x from Unix. At the beginning of his work , several files used the name Freax for almost half a year . Linus actually also considered the name Linux, but didn’t use it because it was considered too selfish .
During the development period , the resulting file is uploaded to the FTP Server . One of the co- working Linus who served as an admin FTP Server considers the name Freax less good , so he changed the name of the project into Linux without consultation with Linus. But ultimately Linus also agreed to name it and used until now .
Application of Linux in environmental production actually begins by community super computer , where organizations such as NASA began to replace the machines they are worth considering with computers that put Linux. The use in the field of commercial catch up when Dell, IBM and HP provide offers support to Linux to detach themselves from the monopoly of Microsoft in the market OS for desktops.
Now Linux has been used in a variety of computer devices , ranging from embedded systems (embedded) to super computers , even Linux has been trusted to be the OS for server installation compared to other OS . The use of the computer desktop even further increased and Linux distributions increasingly popular in the market .
That’s the discussion about the understanding of Linux and the history of its development that you should know as a computer user . Although inferior to the Windows operating system in terms of popularity , linux users are also classified as quite a lot , especially for those who work in the field of networking .
Development of the Linux Operating System
System operation Linux has many experienced growth since the first time in developed by Linus Torvalds in 1991.
1983: Richard Stallman initiated the project GNU (Gnu’s Not Unix) to create a system operating free (free = free )
September 1991: Linus Torvald released the Linux kernel version 0.01
October 5 , 1991: Linus Torvald released the Linux kernel version 0.02
December 19 , 1991: Linus Torvald released the Linux kernel version 0.11
January 5 , 1992: Linus Torvald released the Linux kernel version 0.12
1996: Linux Kernel version 2.0 released
January 1999: Linux kernel version 2.2 released
January 2001: Linux Kernel version 2.4 is released
2011: Linux kernel version 3.0 released
2015: Linux Kernel version 4.0 released
1. Debian Linux
Debian is a type of linux that is less well known , but many users from technical circles . Mer eka satisfied because of its stability . Besides that , the format of the package program that uses DEB considered to be more stable than the RPM by the teknis.Walaupun less well known , but many are used by the expert.versi last which was released in 1999 was 2.1. Compared with linux the other , Debian included less in clicking -Update proramnya . But the debian has been successful big with the project , namely the manufacture of distribution of Linux that is new that is intended for the end-user, which is very familiar in its use . Debian has also used the autodetect method for the use of peripherals on computers . The project is later famous with the name of Corel Linux. You can see a site from debian linux at Http://www.debian.org. And at the moment is debian linux has reached version 4.1 can you see on the website that there is at the top . and also the speed and keguanaan from debian is already highly optimized if you want to use it . Very suitable to use for the server or computer that will be in made in the admin in a company computer .
2. Redhat Linux
Redhat Linux is the most popular linux in Indonesia and America, and is designed specifically for servers. Redhat is recognized as the fastest server compared to other linux servers . Aside from being the fastest server , Redhat can also be used as a client or as a desktop PC / standolone PC . When it redhat been circulated with version 9.0 can use the desktop Genome and KDE. Excess another owned by Redhat Linux is the ease in terms of installasinya . This is a revolutionary Linux. at the time of linux more make users initially broke up , Redhat comes with the procedures installation of the easiest in his time . Another revolutionary thing is that Redhat linux created the RPM program package format which became the standard standard binner file on Linux, which was then used by other linux such as SuSE , Mandrake, and Caldera. You can buy a CD original , or download the program are directly in http://www.redhat.com/
3. Mandrake Linux
Mandrake Linux is a brother younger than Redhat Linux, because both of them are a place of production . When redhat recommended as a server, then mandrake be used as a client yan reliable , and preferably using a Pentium. Even so it does not rule out the use of mandrake as a reliable server as well. Purpose beginning of the creation of Mandrake Linux is to facilitate users to perform the installation and use of Linux it ‘s own . Before the release of Corel Linu , Mandrake was the most familiar linux distribution . If Redhat exits the Manaer desktop using Gnome, then Mandrake inux exits with the KDE desktop manager made by SuSE Germany . when it Mandrake Linux already come out with version 10.0. And you also not only be able to use desktopKDE course , would be but you also can use the Gnome desktop so that users are not able to use the KDE desktop can use the Gnome desktop or vice versa . For a more complete tenyang information and also the product of Linux Mandrake ‘s you can visit the website that there is at http: // Linux mandrake.com/
4. Caldera Linux
Caldera Linux is one of the types of linux that dirancan to simplify usage for users . Caldera itself is designed with an overall appearance with graphics . Since when we perform the installation linux Caldera is , until we do Hardware Setting everything to do with the display of graphics . that was awesome of Linux Caldera this is the time we do the installation of Linux Caldera this , we were treated to game Tetris to fill the time that spare , while awaiting transfer prigram are running . In addition to the Caldera is a kind of linux the first who use Auto-Detect Hardware ( such as plug and play on the Mac). For an explanation that is more complete and also information that is accurate you can see on the site http://caldera-system.com/
5. Slackware Linux
Slackware was the first linux distribution , which had experienced its heyday when only a few people were familiar with Linux. For users of Linux seniors, Slackware is a distribution of Linux that is filled with challenges . Slackware comes with a model that is very simple , do not like the distribution of linux that more . Slackware is a pure linux distribution , in the sense of its appearance that is very similar to UNIX (UNIX Clone), thus making its users feel like using pure UNIX . For those who want a challenge and want to be Linuxer reliable , or are often known by the sysadmin, slackware is the answer . You are not going to ever get convenience as halnyajika we use the distribution of Linux that is more because slackware everything is completely manual and without graphics . The latest version of slackware that is known by the author is version 7.1. You can find out about the development of this linux slackware by visiting the site http://slackware.org/
6. SuSE Linux
If Redhat is the type Linux is the most popular in America and in Indonesia, then SuSE Linux is Linux the most much used by countries in Europe . SuSE comes with DesktopManager are known to KDE. In addition it is also equipped with tools for central setting called YaST (Yet another settup Tools) which is very easy to use for the configuration of the system of internal and network and security. The most proud of this distribution is the completeness of the application program . If you buy Linux SuSE for USD 50.00, you will get 5 program CDs and 1 source CD. So you no longer need to bother downloading other programs . One of the programs well known that are included are Saint (program for researching ceah weaknesses of the system ) and VMWare (emulator program that is useful to run the system is operating more like : Windows 9.x, Windows 2000, Windows NT, OS, Novel, and Others ). One more is the program Beowulf, a project experimental joint university in Germany to create a super computer that combines 1000 CPU into one server tercepet were ever there . The project is also made in NASA- United States , for the benefit of mapping the outside space . When this SuSE has included language Indonesia and the selection of the language that is used in system operation Linux. The documentation was led by I Made Wiryana . For information much more you can see on the site in http://www.suse.de, or in http://www.suse.com
7. Corel Linux
Corel Linux is one of the system operation based on Linux which is made by one of the distributions of Linux, which is Debian. Corel Linux is the same as Linux others , support the system operating system is open source under naunan GNU. Corel Linux can you buy via the Internet at prices that are very affordable , much of the price of linux OS other . Corel Linux can be directly installed with or without another operating system . Corel Linux can also be installed on Windows system partitions and file systems , which makes Corel Linux as if it were a Windows application program . slah one that is interesting from Corel Linux is all -round graphics . Corel Linux is also designed as an end-user. At Corel Linux semuaya paced grafi , starting at the time of the procedure Installation to boot the system . You are not going to find the base text like that exist in the Linux more , or also the windows are still the base text. Dicelel Linux are all simplified . even until the setting jaringanpun more easily than on the setting of the network in Windows. Will tatapi there was a bit of a shortage on Corel Linux is , especially for users who are already proficient . They will binging to display the versatile graphics were granted by Corel Linux. For information that is more detailed you can be visiting at the site that is in http://www.linux.corel.com
8. Turbo Linux
Turbo Linux is a well – known and popular Linux in Asia. Even in Japan and China Linux is well known , Turbo Linux is ranked first choice of Linux distributions . Turbo Linux is made from various under Linux / UNIX, both commercial and freeware for NEC, Tishiba , Novel, and SCO. As with SuSE , Tuurbo Linux specialize themselves in the field of clustering computers, similar to the super computers in Germany for the benefit of the network in China and Japan . Even in China, Turbo Linux adapted as a system of computer prime them , and promoted in the language of China to the people in order to compete with the dominance of Microsoft. For clear you can see the Turbo Linux site at http://www.turbolinux.com .
9. Ubuntu Linux
Ubuntu Linux is one of one of the types of Linux that exist in the world. Ubuntu Linux is a new distribution that immediately gets a place in the hearts of Linux users, especially for Debian mania. How not Ubuntu have over a lot of advantages compared to debian own . Ubuntu offers all the advantages that are owned by Debian coupled with updates periodically every three months , the support of a community that very much , support funds are abundant , in fact you can get a CD installer is free. Ubuntu is a word ancient of Africa that means “Humanity towards other” that less is more meaning is humanity to help others. The purpose of this project is to create a free Desktop Operating System with application support and documentation . This project is sponsored by Canonical Ltd. Ubuntu is based on GNOME and for you are more like KDE you can choose Kubuntu Linux. Although the view both distributions is different but both are equally out of ” factory ” that is the same and of course just the two distributions this has advantages and drawbacks of each . If you are more like to see the characteristics of a typical “Mac OS” you can put on Ubuntu but if you are more like to see a ” somewhat ” similar to the Windows [ even think I was more good than Windows] you can wear Kubuntu but if you just want to make the computer your as a server you can put on any one of the two because of the essentially “base system” both together [ just different Desktop Manager and additional application alone ]. [K] Ubuntu Linux comes in 2 versions , the LiveCD version and the Install version . You could wear a version of the LiveCD if you do not want to install it into the computer , enough input LiveCD it into the CD-ROM drive you , booting from CD-ROM Drive then you already can enjoy Linux. Of course this LiveCD has many limitations because all changes to the configuration that you make will immediately disappear when the computer is turned off and of course the flexibility of this LiveCD will be very far when compared with the Install version . [K] Ubuntu Linux is also present in 3 computer architectures namely : Intel x86, PowerPC and AMD64. Now Ubuntu already comes with a version of the latest is version 7.4 which was issued precisely dated 19 April 2007 and by the news that I get that version of the newest again that 7:10 will be on the release on the date of 18 October , 2007.
1) Linux is software that is inexpensive rousing who can we get in free as well in its use .
2) Can coexist with other operating systems such as : windows, apple and novell
3) Almost no no virus in it , because many developers in the whole world who continue to do the repair system in linux ( we do not need anti-virus ). But it is also possible that Linux can be infected with a virus.
4) The number of distro of linux that te r ready , made us free to choose the software that is in accordance with the level of needs and tools that we have .
5) Can operate on older computers that have minimal hardware specifications