programming language is a standard command / instruction technique for governing computers. This programming language is a set of syntax and semantic rules that are used to define computer programs. This language allows a programmer to determine exactly which data will be processed by a computer, how this data will be stored / forwarded, and what types of steps are exactly to be taken in various situations.

According to the level of proximity to a computer machine, a programming language consists of:

  1. Machine Language, which gives commands to computers using binary language codes, for example 01100101100110
  2. Low-level language, or known as assembly language (English Assembly), which gives commands to the computer using short codes (mnemonic code), for example MOV, SUB, CMP, JMP, JGE, JL, LOOP, etc. .
  3. Intermediate Level Language, which is a computer language that uses a mixture of instructions in the words of human language (see example High Level Language below) and symbolic instructions, for example {,},?, <<, >> , &&, ||, etc.
  4. High-level Language, which is a computer language that uses instructions derived from elements of human language words, for example begin, end, if, for, while, and, or, etc.

Most programming languages are classified as High Level Language, only C language is classified as Intermediate Level Language and Assembly which is Low Level Language.

To carry out the task then the computer will be governed by a system, the basic commands of this computer are stored in a system called an operating system such as DOS, Unix, Windows, Linux, Solaris, etc. The commands of course use machine language by computers that only recognize numbers 1 and 0 (binary) where the number 1 is presented as a container that has electricity and the number 0 has no electricity (voltage).
To create a computerized system we need a tool (tools) that we call a programming language, so what comes to our mind right now is “Tools made to make programs (systems) are called programming languages”, so Programs like Macros / Turbo Assembly, Turbo C, Microsft Visual C ++, C ++ Builder, Microsoft Visual Basic, Delphi etc. are used to create applications not as applications for processing data such as Microsoft Excel, SPPS etc.
Or it can also be said that a programming language is a language used on computers to perform certain tasks. As is the language used by humans in general, there are many types of programming languages. Programming languages can be grouped by levels, such as low level languages, low level languages (Mid Level Language), high level languages.

The following is a summary of the history of programming languages.

Before 1940
In this era there are programming languages that first appeared before the existence of modern computers, meaning that the programming language is older than the computer itself. At the beginning of its appearance, the programming language was still in the form of machine language codes. Machine language is a language that consists of machine codes and can only be interpreted directly by computer machines. This machine language is classified as a low level language, because it is only in the form of codes 0 and 1 as conveyed at the top.

1940s Period

With machine language found many difficulties for the development and improvement of programs made at that time, in the 1940s an electric-powered computer was made, with very limited speed and sufficient memory capacity for programmers to program, and then created assembly language. Assembly language is the symbolic language of machine language. Each machine language code has its own symbol in assembly language. For example Move to move the contents of the data, ADD for addition, MUL for multiplication, SUB for subtraction, and others. The use of Asembly language is not perfect because in addition to being difficult to implement, it turns out that this language is also difficult if the programmer wants to develop his program. In 1948, Konrad Zuse published a paper about his programming language, Plankalkül. However, the language was not used in its time and was isolated from the development of other programming languages. Some programming languages ​​that developed at that time included:
• Plankalkül (Konrad Zuse) – 1943
• ENIAC coding system – 1943
• C-10 – 1949

The period of the 1950s to the 1960s

Beginning in 1950, a modern programming language was created, which was hereditary and is widespread today. This language uses terms or reserved words that are close to human languages ​​such as READ for reading, WRITE for writing, etc. In its development, High Level Language also consists of several programming methods, namely Procedural Programing and Object Oriented Programing. The difference lies in that, if in procedural programing the program is run by combining variables, interrelated procedures and running sequentially, whereas in OOP all tasks are run based on objects.
• FORTRAN (1955), the “FORmula TRANslator”, discovered by John W. Backus etc.
• LISP, the “LISt Processor”, discovered by John McCarthy etc.
• COBOL, the COmmon Bussines Oriented Language, made by the Short Range Committee, and Grace Hopper play a very large role here.

Overview:
• Regional Assembly Language – 1951
• Autocode – 1952
• FORTRAN – 1954
• FLOW-MATIC – 1955
• COMTRAN – 1957
• LISP – 1958
• ALGOL – 1958
• COBOL – 1959
• APL – 1962
• SIMULA – 1962
• BASIC – 1964
• PL / I -1964

Period 1967-1978: Establishing a Fundamental Paradigm
The period between the 60s to the 70s brought a great influence in the development of programming languages.

 Most of the major programming language patterns currently in use:
Simula, discovered in the late 60s by Nygaard and Dahl as a superset of Algol 60, was the first programming language designed to support object-oriented programming.
• C, an initial stage of a programming language system, developed by Dennis Ritchie and Ken Thompson at Bell Labs between 1969 and 1973.
• Smalltalk (mid-70s) presents a complete ground-up design of an object-oriented language.
• Prolog, designed in 1977 by Colmerauer, Roussel, and Kowalski, was the first logic programming language.
• ML built a polymorphic system (discovered by Robin Miller in 1973) on top of a Lisp, which pioneered a static-type functional programming language.
Some programming languages ​​developed during this period included:

• Pascal – 1970
• Forth – 1970
• C – 1970
• Smaltalk – 1972
• Prologue – 1972
• ML – 1973
• SQL – 1978
1980s: consolidation, modules, performance
1980s was a year of relative consolidation. C ++ is combined with programming and object-oriented systems. The United States Government standardizes Ada, a programming system that aims to be used by contractors to survive. In Japan and elsewhere, the large sums that have been investigated are called “fifth generation” languages ​​that unite the logic of construction programming. The functional language community moves to standardization of ML and Cedal. Compared to discovering new paradigms, all of these movements have been devoted to the ideas found in the previous decade.

However, one important new trend in language design was an increased focus on programming for large-scale systems through the use of modules, or large-scale organizational units of code. Modula, Ada, and ML all developed notable module systems in the 1980s. Module systems are often built into generic programming constructs generics being, in essence, parameterized modules (see also parametric polymorphism).

However, a new trend in language design is an increased focus on programming for large-scale systems through the use of modules, or large-scale organizational units of code. Modula, Ada, and ML are all leading module systems developed in the 1980s.
Some programming languages ​​developed during this period included:
• There is – 1983
• C ++ – 1983
• Eiffel – 1985
• Perl – 1987
• FL (Backus) – 1989

1990s: Visual
In this period, languages ​​other than object-oriented have also been developed based on Visual so that it is easier to create application programs, beginning with Python and Microsoft Visual Basic 1 in 1991, Delphi which was developed from Pascal for windows finally in 1997 Visual Basic 5 was launched with ease of connection to the database, OO Cobol has been found in the Windows version. For most database programmers, it cannot be denied that the 1990s were the most productive era since the programming language was invented.

Some programming languages ​​developed during this period included
• Haskel – 1990
• Python – 1991
• Java – 1991
• Ruby – 1993
• OO Cobol
• Lua – 1993
• ANSI Common Lisp – 1994
• JavaScript – 1995
• PHP – 1995
• C # – 2000
• JavaFX Scrip, Live Script,
• Visual Basic

Period 2000s until this writing was made
At present there is a tendency for vendors of programming languages ​​to lead programmers only by using their products to create programs even though we realize that it is difficult to create powerful programs with only one programming language, this is certainly done with the aim of sustaining their efforts, but apart from all of that there are two big conceptions in this period where the ease of visual based has begun to be led to the internet and mobile base, with the emergence of webservice and net-based and a mobile platform.

The first concept to be observed is Microsoft’s conception where Visual Net will provide various programming languages ​​such as VB Net, VC ++ Net, ASP NET which are compiled with various languages ​​but run on one operating system, namely Windows. (Compile any program run one system)

Second Conception, This concept is reversed from the first concept, namely what Sun Microsystems offers through its Java, J2ME, JDK products, which is compiled with one programming language (java) and runs in many operating systems. (Compile one program running any system)

In addition, this period is also the era of CMS (Content Management System), the leap in PHP Script development is so fast, where to create websites or portals there are already many templates available, Many modules are ready to use so programmers or webmasters no longer need to learn all the html scripts and the language, just assembling the available modules so that within a few days a web can be made. What is offered by Mambo, PhkNuke and Jomla is currently very easy for web designers.

Some programming languages ​​developed during this period included
• Tcl / Tk,
• O’Caml,
• Ruby,
• Python 3.1,
• Java 6 JDK, JED, Java Beans, J2ME
• Microsoft Visual Net (VB Net, C ++ Net, ASP NET) 2008
• Java Scrip Template by Mambo, PhpNuke, Jomla

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