July 5, 2012 became one of the most important days in the history of football development. On that date the International Football Association Board (IFAB), aka the International Football Association Board, the body responsible for Laws of the Game, finally approved the use of goal line technology (GLT). A goal, according to Laws of the Game, occurs when the ball has completely crossed the goal line. But the limitations of referee observations have often given rise to controversy about the validity of a goal.
The World Cup as the biggest football event did not escape this incident. Even today many still wonder about the validity of Britain’s third goal in the 4-2 victory over West Germany in the final of 1966. The insistence on the use of the GLT began to ring in the 2000s to overcome this complicated problem, but FIFA as the highest authority continued to budge, with the president Sepp Blatter in 2010 stating the technology was too much and would slow down the game.
However, with incidents after incidents continuing to emerge in high profile matches, including Frank Lampard’s shot against Germany in World War 2010 which was not declared a goal despite clearly crossing the line, as well as the Ukraine versus England ghost goal in Euro 2012, support for the use of GLT unstoppable. Finally, exactly today two years ago, IFAB – which consists of FIFA and the football federation of England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland – decided to approve the use of GLT, starting with the 2012 Club World Cup and 2013 Confederations Cup.
Both tournaments are free from incidents, but the public can finally see the effectiveness of using GLT to reduce unnecessary controversy at the 2014 World Cup. It is France who is the first team to be “assisted” by GLT to score a goal when facing Honduras in the inaugural match of the group phase.
Then, what are the elements that support goal-line technology to work? Therefore, we will try to explain in detail the elements that make the technology work in determining whether the ball has crossed the goal line or not.
- The ball used
There is a special ball so that goal-line technology can work in a match. The ball used is actually not too different from the balls used in a match. But, there is a chip inside the ball to provide all information about the existence of the ball on the field during the match.
- Receiver unit
This unit receives messages from the computer and determines whether a goal has been scored. This unit is shaped usually shaped like a watch worn by line judges and referees. If indeed the ball has crossed the goal line, then there will be a message that reads “goal” in this unit.
- Smart Ball System
The imaginative project that underlies goal line technology was started by two German companies, namely Adidas and Cairos Technologies. The two companies installed a sensor inside the ball.
Where the sensor provides a direct signal to sensors that are also installed in the football field area. Signals emitted from the Smart Ball System are directly integrated with the Hawkeye System which is placed in the goal line area to tell whether the ball has crossed the goal line or not.
- Hawkeye System
This system was developed directly by a British company called Hawk-Eye. This company was successful and at the forefront in developing the Hawk-Eye system. Where the device has previously been used in sports Cricket and Tennis.
But in the world of football, the use of this system is different from these two types of sports. In football, three pairs of cameras are used which are focused on each goal line.
The three cameras are capable of capturing 600 frames per second. The device has two systems to determine whether the ball has crossed the goal line or not, namely through sound or clock. So that is why the court courts in the English Premier League use headsets.
- Smart Ref System
The two devices above will not be useful if there is no Smart Ref System that was developed directly by Fraunhofer IIS through a radio wave system. The signal emitted by the two previous devices is immediately received by this third rank.
The Importance of Goal Line Technology in Football
In football, it is not a strange thing if the goal that is created becomes a controversial goal. One party from the match will certainly feel disadvantaged by the goal
For example, a ghost goal from Frank Lampard that occurred during the 2010 World Cup. Hard kick in the 39th minute managed to break into Manuel Neuer’s defense. Unfortunately the ball bounces on the crossbar although it manages to enter about one yard behind the goal line.The hope of England to equal his position with Germany being 2-2 it should be destroyed. Lampard’s goal was not recognized by the referee even though the re-shot showed that his shot had scored a valid goal. The ghost goal incident occurred again in 2013 when Hoffenheim against Bayer Leverkusen in the Bundesliga. Stefan Kiessling header in the 70th minute. Kiessling was disappointed because his header sideways and did not produce a goal. However, the referee stated Kiessling’s header was a goal. Hoffenheim did not accept the referee’s decision. The reason is clearly seen in the recording if the ball is entered through a hole in the side of the goal. Kiessling feels guilty. He then made an apology and expressed his disappointment at the referee’s decision.
Costs for Goal Line Technology Installation
In Indonesia there are moments where goal line technology must be present to legitimize referees’ decisions. One of them was when Persib Bandung faced Sriwijaya FC. At that time, the ball that had crossed the line was considered valid by the referee. However, Sriwijaya goalkeeper did not accept and insisted that the ball was still in the line.
However, this hope was hindered by the relatively expensive costs. For the use of GLT for five years, clubs in the UK must reach up to 475,000 pounds or 8.9 billion rupiah.
The price is relatively lower than the prices offered in other countries such as Germany. Only for use for three years, Germany must reach up to 420,000 pounds or the equivalent of 7.9 billion rupiah.
Many foreign clubs object to the high cost of installing goal-line technology. For the possibility of the presence of such technology in Indonesia itself is very small. High prices are definitely a major obstacle to the installation of the goal line technology.
But it’s different if you use GoalRef. The cost of installation and use is only 2.5 billion rupiah per stadium. Much cheaper than the GLT whose rental system.
That is why enough goal line technology is needed at the time. Although on the other hand, this technology can eliminate the human nature of football itself. Because it will reduce drama in football if there is too much technology.