The continued development of 5G internet technology was affected by the heat of trade disputes between the United States and China. The US government has included the Chinese mobile phone manufacturer Huawei on the product blacklist (blacklist) that cannot enter the country. Though Huawei is currently preparing 5G network services in several countries, one of which is in Indonesia. The plan, this technology will be officially launched in 2020 during the Olympic celebration in Japan. Huawei had predicted 2.8 billion people adopted 5G technology in 2025.
The fifth generation internet technology is relatively new for Indonesia considering the latest network used today is still 4G (fourth generation). Huawei, Nokia, Samsung, and Verizon since a few years ago have started to talk about the development of 5G even though at that time 4G was only used.
The fifth generation cellular technology, 5G, is the next big leap in speed for wireless devices. This speed includes the level of mobile users who can download data to their devices and the latency or delay they experience between sending and receiving information. The presence of 5G aims to provide data speeds of 10 to 100 times faster than the existing 4G network. 5G users can expect download speeds at gigabits per second (Gb / s), far greater than tens of megabits per second (Mb / s) of 4G speed.
With 5G speed, internet users can download 33 films with high definition quality (HD) in seconds. While on a 4G phone, downloading HD quality movies can take six minutes. However, the initial experiments carried out by Ericsson still resulted in data transfer speeds of 5 Gbps on a 15 Gigahertz (Ghz) frequency network.
Tafazolli had led the 5G innovation center at the University of Surrey, England. The British government even funded the latest technology research. The radio waves in question are the data transmission medium in 5G technology.
Another advantage is the lack of pauses during the data transfer process (ultra low latency). In 4G technology, the number of pauses obtained when data transfer reaches 50 milliseconds. While 5G technology is claimed to only have a pause of 1 millisecond. The lack of delay will make the operation of high-tech devices such as virtual reality to unmanned vehicles with minimal disruption. Another difference, 5G technology allows many sophisticated internet devices to be connected simultaneously at one time. This allows the world to be more connected to the internet. Some of the technologies that can be accessed are smart home appliances to vehicles.
This network is also expected to help in increasing the application of Internet of Things (IoT) technology in various fields in the world. IoT is an interconnected computational concept and the ability to transfer data through networks without requiring human-computer interaction. IoT is useful in tracking logistics, smart cities, smart buildings, to agriculture.
According to the GSMA, 5G can reach as many as 1.2 billion connections by 2025. It is also predicted that the 5G network will cover one third of the world’s population. Now mobile companies such as Samsung have issued cellphones that can service the 5G network for available countries.
Since the initial generation of mobile phones, wireless networks have operated on the same radio frequency band of the electromagnetic spectrum. But as more and more users throng the network and ask for more data than ever before, this radio wave highway becomes increasingly congested with cellular traffic.
To compensate, cellular providers want to expand to higher millimeter wave frequencies. Millimeter waves use frequencies of 30 to 300 gigahertz, which are 10 to 100 times higher than the radio waves used today for 4G and WiFi networks. They are called millimeters because their wavelengths vary between 1 and 10 millimeters, while radio waves are in the order of centimeters. Higher millimeter wave frequencies can create new lines on the communication highway, but there is one problem.
Ie millimeter waves are easily absorbed by leaves and buildings, and will require many Base Transceiver Station (BTS) that are close, called small cells. BTS is a telecommunications infrastructure that facilitates wireless communication between communication devices and operator networks. Fortunately, these types of BTS are much smaller and require less power than traditional cell towers and can be placed on buildings and light poles.
Miniaturization of the BTS also allows another technological breakthrough for 5G, namely massive MIMO. MIMO stands for multiple-input multiple-output, and refers to a configuration that takes advantage of the smaller antennas needed for millimeter waves by dramatically increasing the number of antenna ports at each BTS.
The Challenges of Implementing 5G in Indonesia
Indonesia is not fully ready to implement 5G technology at this time. This fast cellular network has challenges to be developed in the country. The Ministry of Communication and Information Technology (Kominfo) said Indonesia does not yet have a business model for the 5G internet network, especially in the retail segment.
Minister of Communication and Information Rudiantara said the speed of the 5G network, which is 10 times that of the 4G network, has the potential to make internet users pay fees three times from now. The use of 5G is even more suitable for businesses or corporations because the costs that can be borne are greater.
Rudiantara could not be sure when 5G network technology could be applied in Indonesia. Currently the government is preparing the rules of the game. He said the government was only a regulator or policy maker that was not strict (light touch regulation).
Meanwhile, several telecommunications operators that have already trialled the 5G network in Indonesia are Telkomsel, XL, Indosat, and Tri. Meanwhile, Smartfren will test the network in June 2019. As for Telkomsel, it has introduced 5G technology in Indonesia during the ASIAN Games, last August 2018. At that time, Telkomsel launched the Telkomsel 5G Experience Center by introducing devices such as Live Streaming, Football 2020, Future Driving, Cycling Everywhere and Autonomous Bus.
Is 5G dangerous?
Although 5G can improve our daily lives, some users have raised concerns about potential health hazards. Many of these concerns are the use of 5G millimeter wave radiation in higher energy. Further research is needed on the potential health impacts of the 5G network. Because there aren’t many toxicological studies with this technology.