Formula 1 cars are ground vehicles designed for racing. All components are carefully designed and made so as to achieve high speeds and are safe for the driver.
Formula one is a prestigious four-wheeled racing competition in the world. Each team designs the car so that it can go fast, so it gets the nickname “land jet”.
For construction work is also not arbitrary, need careful calculation. All participants have a mechanical team that is professional and expert in their field. Because if you miscalculate then you can harm the driver.
At the end of the season, all teams overhaul their vehicles to make it better than last season. Basically the components used are the same as those in a car in general. Only I am a little different components from the market.
The following are the secret components behind the construction of formula one cars.
The chassis is a crucial component in a Formula One car because it is where the bolt is installed. Formula one cars use a construction such as a moern aircraft called monocoque construction, from French which means “single shell”, which refers to the process of the whole body in one material.
Previously the material used was aluminum, now using strong composites such as carbon fiber fibers arranged in resin (carbon fiber coated aluminum mesh). The result is a lightweight car that can withstand the downward acting force generated when the vehicle moves through the air.
The chassis must weigh less than 702 kg or 1548 lbs, including the tires and the driver but not including fuel. For maximum dimensions of 180 cm x 95 cm (width x height). There is no exact length, but most have the same size.
Monocoque combines a soft and strong cockpit to accommodate one person. Unlike the market car cockpit that has significant differences, the formula one cockpit has strict requirements. For example, it must meet the minimum size and the floor must be flat. The seats must be adjusted to the driver so that the movement is limited while racing.
Before 2006, the engine used was a 3-liter V10 engine, then changed to a 2.4-liter V8 engine. Even though its power output has dropped due to policy, this engine can still produce nearly 900 horsepower.
In comparison, the 2.5-liter Volkswagen Jetta engine produces 150 horsepower. Of course a Jetta engine might be good for 100,000 miles or more. Unlike the formula one car that every 500 mill must be repaired. Why is that?
For engines with 900 horsepower requires the engine to work at a very high revolution rate, approaching 19,000 rpm. An engine with that rpm can generate large amounts of heat and exert great pressure on moving parts. But since the rules were regulated in 2014, all cars have to use turbocharged 1.6 liter V6 engines.
The fuel used is 50 different fuel blends, tuned for different tracks and conditions in certain seasons. The resulting mixture must be submitted to the FIA, for approval of composition and physical properties.
The function of the transmission is to transmit engine power to the rear wheels of a formula one car. The transmission bolt goes directly to the rear and covers all parts such as the gearbox, differential and drive shaft.
The gearbox has a minimum of four teeth and a maximum of seven teeth. But most gearboxes use six gears, most formula one cars use seven gears. Gearbox is connected to the differential, a set of gears that allows the rear wheel to rotate at different speeds when cornering. Differentials are connected to a drive shaft that transfers power to the wheels.
At present, the gearbox used by Formula One cars is made of titanium carbon with a semi-automatic sequential with 8 forward gears and one reverse gear, with rear wheel drive.
For gear changes, a Formula One car uses a paddle located just behind the wheel. For downward shifting is done on the steering wheel, fastening on the other side.
Formula one cars are very much determined by aerodynamics, in addition to powerful engines. This is because fast moving vehicles must be able to do two things namely, reduce air resistance and increase downforce.
The car is designed low and wide to reduce air resistance. While the wings, diffuser, end plates and stick boards increase downforce.
The use of wings was first used in the 1960s, in principle like an aircraft wing but in reverse. Its function is as a lift and downforce producer that holds the car to the track, especially when cornering. Front and rear wing angles can be adjusted to get the ideal balance between air resistance and downforce.
Most of aerodynamics is related to getting air to move. Endplane is a small flange area on the edge of the front wing that helps “take” air and steer along the side of the car.
The barge plank, which is right behind the front wheels, takes air from there, accelerating to get downforce. Technically, this aerodynamics is a combined downforce weighing 2500 kg. Equivalent to four times the weight of the car.
The suspension on a formula one car at a glance is almost the same as the market car. What distinguishes the car in general is a formula one using double wishbone suspension.
Before starting the race, the mechanics will adjust the suspension so the car can brake and angled safely, without ignoring a good handling response.
Formula one vehicles use disc brakes that can stop the car at speeds of more than 200 mph. The result is the brakes turn red hot when used. To avoid wear and improve brake performance, mechanics use carbon fiber bearings, discs with rotors and calipers.
Although lightweight, this brake system is effective at 750 ° C. The hole around the edge of the disc is capable of releasing heat quickly. The car also has an air inlet mounted outside the wheel hub to cool the brakes. Air intake is changed according to the tracks used for braking.
Tires are a crucial component because all working systems are supplied to the tires. If the tires are not good, the car also has poor performance, apart from the technical sophistication of the other components.
The use of tires on formula one is not arbitrary, there are mandatory rules. For the current width of the front tire between 12 to 15 inches and rear tires width of 14 and 15 inches, but it is possible to change depending on the rules of the FIA. Must have four continuous longitudinal grooves to run around the perimeter. Groove depth of at least 2.5 mm and 50 mm apart.
When it rains, the car has an intermediate tire that is wet, has a full tread pattern designed to flow water from the road surface.
- Steering the car
The formula one steering wheel as the overall car control center. Changing gears, mixing fuel until all brakes just just press the button. The size is also only half the diameter of the steering wheel in general.
For security reasons, the formula one steering wheel is designed to be easily dismantled via the snap-on connector. The reason is because the driver must be able to get out of the car in less than five minutes without releasing anything other than the steering wheel.
Source: auto.howstuffworks.com | tutorialspoint.com