A simple embedded system, with simple functionality, may be controlled by a specialpurpose program or set of programs with no other software. Typically, more complex embedded systems include an OS.Although it is possible in principle to use a general-purpose OS, such as Linux, for an embedded system, constraints of memory space, power consumption, and real-time requirements typically dictate the use of a special-purpose OS designed for the embedded system environment.

The following are some of the unique characteristics and design requirements for embedded operating systems:

• Real-time operation: In many embedded systems, the correctness of a computation depends, in part, on the time at which it is delivered. Often, real-time constraints are dictated by external I/O and control stability requirements.
• Reactive operation: Embedded software may execute in response to external events. If these events do not occur periodically or at predictable intervals, the embedded software may need to take into account worst-case conditions and set priorities for execution of routines.
• Configurability: Because of the large variety of embedded systems, there is a large variation in the requirements, both qualitative and quantitative, for embedded OS functionality. Thus, an embedded OS intended for use on a variety of embedded systems must lend itself to flexible configuration so that only the functionality needed for a specific application and hardware suite is provided. [MARW06] gives the following examples.The linking and loading functions can be used to select only the necessary OS modules to load. Conditional compilation can be used. If an object-oriented structure is used, proper subclasses can be defined. However, verification is a potential problem for designs with a large number of derived tailored operating systems. Takada cites this as a potential problem for eCos [TAKA01].
• I/O device flexibility: There is virtually no device that needs to be supported by all versions of the OS, and the range of I/O devices is large. [MARW06] suggests that it makes sense to handle relatively slow devices such as disks and network interfaces by using special tasks instead of integrating their drives into the OS kernel.
• Streamlined protection mechanisms: Embedded systems are typically designed for a limited, well-defined functionality. Untested programs are rarely added to the software. After the software has been configured and tested, it can be assumed to be reliable. Thus, apart from security measures, embedded systems have limited protection mechanisms. For example, I/O instructions need not be privileged instructions that trap to the OS; tasks can directly perform their own I/O. Similarly, memory protection mechanisms can be minimized. [MARW06] provides the following example. Let switch correspond to the memory-mapped I/O address of a value that needs to be checked as part of an I/O operation. We can allow the I/O program to use an instruction such as load register, switch to determine the current value. This approach is preferable to the use of an OS service call, which would generate overhead for saving and restoring the task context.
• Direct use of interrupts: General-purpose operating systems typically do not permit any user process to use interrupts directly. [MARW06] lists three reasons why it is possible to let interrupts directly start or stop tasks (e.g., by storing the task’s start address in the interrupt vector address table) rather than going through OS interrupt service routines: (1) Embedded systems can be considered to be thoroughly tested, with infrequent modifications to the OS or application code; (2) protection is not necessary, as discussed in the preceding bullet item; and (3) efficient control over a variety of devices is required.
There are two general approaches to developing an embedded OS. The first approach is to take an existing OS and adapt it for the embedded application. The other approach is to design and implement an OS intended solely for embedded use.

Configurability

An embedded OS that is flexible enough to be used in a wide variety of embedded applications and on a wide variety of embedded platforms must provide more functionality than will be needed for any particular application and platform. For example, many real-time operating systems support task switching, concurrency controls, and a variety of priority scheduling mechanisms. A relatively simple embedded system would not need all these features.

The challenge is to provide an efficient, user-friendly mechanism for configuring selected components and for enabling and disabling particular features within components.The eCos configuration tool, which runs on Windows or Linux, is used to configure an eCos package to run on a target embedded system.The complete eCos package is structured hierarchically, making it easy, using the configuration tool, to assemble a target configuration. At a top level, eCos consists of a number of components, and the configuration user may select only those components needed for the target application. For example, a system might have a particular serial I/O device.The configuration user would select serial I/O for this configuration, then select one or more specific I/O devices to be supported. The configuration tool would include the minimum necessary software for that support. The configuration user can also select specific parameters, such as default data rate and the size of I/O buffers to be used.

This configuration process can be extended down to finer levels of detail, even to the level of individual lines of code. For example, the configuration tool provides the option of including or omitting a priority inheritance protocol. shows the top level of the eCos configuration tool as seen by the user tool. Each of the items on the list in the left-hand window can be selected or deselected.When an item is highlighted, the lower right-hand window provides a description and the upper right-hand window provides a link to further documentation plus additional information about the highlighted item. Items on the list can be expanded to provide a finer-grained menu of options. Figure 13.3 illustrates an expansion of the eCos kernel option. In this figure, note that exception handling has been selected for inclusion, but SMP (symmetric multiprocessing) has been omitted. In general, components and individual options can be selected or omitted. In some cases, individual values can be set; for example, a minimum acceptable stack size is an integer value that can be set or left to a default value.

shows a typical example of the overall process of creating the binary image to execute in the embedded system. This process is run on a source system, such as a Windows or Linux platform, and the executable image is destined to execute on a target embedded system, such as a sensor in an industrial environment. At the highest software level is the application source code for the particular embedded application. This code is independent of eCos but makes use of application programming interfaces (API) to sit on top of the eCos software. There may be only one version of the application source code, or there may be variations for different versions of the target embedded platform. In this example, the GNU make utility is used to selectively determine which pieces of a program need to be compiled or recompiled (in the case of a modified version of the source code) and issues the commands to recompile them. The GNU cross compiler, executing on the source

platform, then generates the binary executable code for the target embedded platform. The GNU linker links the application object code with the code generated by the eCos configuration tool. This latter set of software includes selected portions of the eCos kernel plus selected software for the target embedded system. The result can then be loaded into the target system.

eCos Components

A key design requirement for eCos is portability to different architectures and platforms with minimal effort. To met this requirement, eCos consists of a layered set of components.

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