The more time passes, the more diverse forms of technological innovation. Technology basically exists in human life as the role of facilitating, overcoming, helping, and solving problems that exist in human life. With the presence of this technology, the role of human beings is getting less and less because, in harsh words, replaced by technology. Humans create technology on various problems of life that basically can be overcome by humans themselves, but humans make technology that essentially helps and resolves problems faster, more effectively, efficiently, and practically. So present technology is not to replace the role of humans to overcome their various problems, present technology makes it easy, helps, and overcomes human problems so that they can be solved better

From a variety of technological innovations developed by humans, embedded systems are one of the innovations that greatly simplify human work. Embedded systems come slowly into our lives. The tools began to enter slowly in terms of the size of a small tool, which can be held, to a large tool, which must be carried by several people. It is this technological innovation that we encounter most and use in our daily lives. Unconsciously we always meet with embedded systems from when we wake up, for example alarms by digital clocks, then drink coffee with a coffee maker, then wash with a washing machine, go to the office using a car that has a driver assistant system, buy drinks from a vending machine, to listening to songs from an mp3 player, and so on.

Embedded systems have entered human life long ago without us knowing it. Even now, researchers and technology developers are still trying to create an embedded system for this device may not unthinkable by ordinary people. The impact of embedded systems on human life is indeed extraordinary. The work carried out may take 20 minutes, with embedded systems can be completed in only 5 minutes, or work that requires humans to go directly into the field can be replaced with embedded system implementation tools. Much human work has been resolved quickly, practically, effectively, and efficiently since the existence of an embedded system.

An embedded system or embedded system is a special computer system that is designed to carry out certain tasks. Usually the system is embedded in a single system or can be said to be a system that is attached to another system. Embeded system is a digital electronic circuit system which is part of a larger system, which is usually not an electronic system. The word embedded shows that it is a part that cannot stand alone. Embedded systems are usually application-specific systems that are specifically designed for certain applications. Examples of systems or applications include medical instrumentation medical instruments, process control, automated vehicles control, and networking and communication systems communication devices. This is different from digital systems that are designed for general-purpose purposes. Embedded systems are usually implemented using a microcontroller. A computer system that is a component of a larger machine or system. Embedded systems can provide real time responses. Embedded systems are widely used in digital equipment, such as watches , MP3 players.

Embedded systems are controlled by one or more main core processes which are usually in the form of a microcontroller or a DSP digital signal processor dedicated to handling certain tasks, which may require a very powerful processor. For example, a useful air traffic system can be seen as an embedded system, although it involves mainframe computers and is dedicated to the national regional network between the airport and each radar site may include one or more of its own embedded systems. (Barr, 2007)

Physically, Embedded Systems range from portable devices such as digital clocks and MP3 players, to large stationary installations such as traffic lights, factory controllers, or controlling nuclear power generation systems. The complexity varies from low, with one microcontroller chip, to very high with several units, peripherals and large networks installed in the chassis or enclosure. (Barr, 2007)

In general, embedded systems are not strictly defined terms, as most systems have some extended element or programmability. For example, handheld computers share several elements with Embedded Systems such as operating systems and microprocessors where they power, but they allow different applications to be retrieved and peripherals to be connected. In addition, even systems that do not expose programmability as a major feature generally need to support software updates. On a continuum from general purpose to embedded, large application systems will have subcomponents at points if the system as a whole is designed to perform one or several specific functions, and thus corresponds to embedded calls. (Barr, 2007)

Consumer electronics include personal digital assistants, PDAs, mp3 players, cellphones, video game consoles, digital cameras, DVD players, GPS receivers, and printers. Many household appliances such as microwave ovens, washing machines and dishwashers, which include embedded systems to provide flexibility, efficiency and features. Advanced HVAC systems use a thermostat network for more accurate and efficient temperature control that can change with time and season. Home automation uses wired- and wireless-networks that can be used to control lights, climate, security, audio / visual, surveillance, etc., all of which use embedded devices for monitoring and control. (Barr, 2007)

In contrast to digital systems designed for general purposes. Embedded systems are usually implemented for specific purposes, embedded systems can provide responses that are real time and are widely used in digital equipment, such as watches. Embedded systems are systems with the following characteristics:

  1. Having computing power. In other words equipped with a processor
  2. Work in an outdoor IT environment. So chances are not equipped with air conditioning and face interference from outside sepert i vibration and dust.
  3. Have a specific task. Unlike a PC or server that is relatively more multi purpose.

2.2. CHARACTERISTICS OF EMBEDDED SYSTEM             

Embedded systems are designed to perform certain tasks, not to become general purpose computers for various purposes. Some also have real-time performance constraints that must be met, for reasons such as security and usability others may not have performance requirements or are low, allowing system hardware to be simplified to reduce costs.

Embedded systems are not always standalone devices. Many Embedded Systems consist of smaller, computerized parts in larger devices that serve more general purposes. For example, Gibson Robot Guitar features an embedded system for tuning strings, but the overall purpose of Robot Guitar is, of course, to play music. Likewise, an embedded system in a car provides specific functions as a subsystem of the car itself. These program instructions written for Embedded Systems are referred to as firmware, and are stored in read-only memory or Flash chip memory. They run with limited computer hardware resources: small memory, small or non-existent keyboard and / or screen.

The characteristic characteristics of embedded systems are :

Real-time operation :

In many Embedded Systems, the correctness of the calculation depends, in part, on the time at which it is delivered. Often, real-time. Constraints are determined by external external I / O and demand stability control.

Reactive operation:

Embedded software can do in response to external events. If these events do not occur periodically or at predictable intervals, embedded software may need to consider the worst conditions and set priorities for implementing the routine.

Configurability:

Because of the large variety of embedded systems, there are large variations in demand, both qualitative and quantitative, for embedded OS functions for the execution of routines.

I / O device flexibility:

There are almost no devices that need to be supported by all versions of the OS, and various large I / O devices.

Efficient protection mechanism :

Embedded systems are usually designed to have limited, well-defined functions

Direct use of interrupt:

General-purpose operating systems usually do not allow user processes to use direct interruptions

2.3. History ystem Embedded             

              One of the first recognizable embedded systems was the Apollo Computer Guide , developed by Charles Stark Draper at the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory. At the beginning of the project, the Apollo guidance computer was considered the most risky item in the Apollo project because it employed then newly developed integrated monolithic circuits to reduce size and weight. The initial mass-produced embedded system was the Autonetics D-17 computer guide to the Minuteman missile , released in 1961. It was built from logic transistors and had a hard disk for main memory. When Minuteman II went into production in 1966, the D-17 was replaced by a new computer that used the first high-volume integrated circuit. The program itself lowers prices on quad gate nand ICs from $ 1000 / piece to $ 3 / piece enabling its use in commercial products. (Michael Barr and Anthoni J. Massa, 2006) .                 

Since this application was present in the early 1960s, embedded systems have fallen in price and there has been a dramatic increase in processing power and functionality. The first microprocessor for example, Intel 4004 , was designed for calculator and other small systems but still required a lot of external memory and chip support. In 1978 National Engineering Manufacturers Association released the st andar for programming mikrokontrole r , including almost all computer-based controllers, such as computer single board , numeric, and controllers based activity. (Michael Barr and Anthoni J. Massa, 2006)

As the cost of microprocessors and microcontrollers fell it became feasible to replace expensive knob b erbasis analog components such as potentiometers and capacitors variable with up / down buttons or knobs read out by a microprocessor even in some consumer products. By the mid 1980s, most of the previously common external system components had been integrated into the same chip as the processor and the modern form of the microcontroller allowed an even wider use, which at the end of the decade was the norm not the exception for almost all electronic devices. (Michael Barr and Anthoni J. Massa, 2006)             

           The integration of microcontrollers has increasingly enhanced applications that embedded systems are used in areas where computers would normally not be considered. General and relatively inexpensive microcontroller purposes may often be programmed to fulfill the same role as a large number of separate components. Although in this context an embedded system is usually more complex than traditional solutions, most of the complexity is contained within the microcontroller itself. Very few additional components may be needed and most of the design effort is in software. The software’s intangible nature makes it easier for new prototype and test revisions compared to the design and construction of new circuits using no embedded processor.                       

2.4. Development of Embedded Systems             

The development of embedded systems in the present time continues to experience very rapid progress both physically (devices / hardware) and non-physical (programs / software) along with the development of human thinking ability and the need for the presence of new technologies that can provide convenience and comfort in carrying out activities . Embedded system is one technology that is currently developed by engineers creating equipment with special functions for a particular application will but with minimal resources. So as to reduce the dimensions of the equipment made and the cost of production in the development process.

Because of the need for equipment that is portable, minimalist in terms of dimensions and low development costs, many engineers design embedded systems based on open source software. Open source operating system that is generally widely used to design embedded systems is linux. In its application, Linux systems that are embedded in embedded systems are better known as embedded linux.

The use of Linux operating systems in the development of embedded systems has advantages when compared to other operating systems, including the kernel system which is relatively stable, there is no license fee for the use of the program and program codes (source code) that are easy to modify and use. redistributed.

  1. Embedded System Architecture

The embedded system architecture is an abstraction of an embedded device. Hardware and software components are not represented as a number of compositions of interacting elements. The embedded system architecture is important in solving the challenges faced when designing a new system.
 

The usual challenge is

• define and capture system design

• cost limitations

• determine system integrity, such as reliability and security

• works within the limits of function elements available (such as

  processing power, memory, battery life,

• deterministic requirements

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