E-learning is a form of learning model that is facilitated and supported by the use of information and communication technology. E-learning has characteristics, among others (Clark & Mayer 2008: 10): 1) has content that is relevant to the learning objectives; 2) using instructional methods, for example presenting examples and exercises to enhance learning; 3) using media elements such as words and pictures to convey learning material; 4) enables direct learning centered on the teacher (synchronous e-learning) or designed for independent learning (asynchronous e-learning); 5) build understanding and skills related to learning objectives either individually or improve group learning performance.
Contructivism is a view of how a person learns, namely explains how humans build their understanding and knowledge of the world around them through recognition of the objects around them that are reflected through their experiences. When we discover something new, we can reconstruct it with our initial ideas and experiences, so that the possibility of that knowledge changes our beliefs or new information that is ignored because it is something that is not relevant to the original idea.
To implement constructivism in the classroom, we must have confidence that when students come to class, their brains are not empty of knowledge, they enter into a learning situation with the knowledge, ideas, and understanding that are already in their minds. If appropriate, this initial knowledge is the basic material for the new knowledge they will develop.
There are several principles that must be considered, if you will apply constructivism in learning, the principles are as follows:
- Asking problems that are relevant to students. To begin learning, ask questions that are relevant to students’ daily lives, so students can respond, for example in our school, plastic garbage packs from snacks are piled up, what can you do for that?
- Structure learning to achieve essential concepts.
- Realize that students’ opinions (perspectives) are their window for reasoning (thinking).
- Adapt the curriculum to meet the needs and development of students.
- Conduct an assessment of student learning outcomes in the context of learning.
The learning process that is characterized by constructivism according to the constructivists is as follows:
- Learning means forming meaning.
- Construction of the meaning of something that is being learned occurs in a continuous process.
- Learning is not an activity to collect facts, but more than that, namely the development of thought by making new understandings.
- The actual learning process takes place when a person’s scheme is in doubt which stimulates further thinking. An imbalance situation is a good situation to spur learning.
- Learning outcomes are influenced by students’ experiences with the physical world and their environment. A person’s learning outcomes depend on what students already know (concepts, goals, motivation) that affect interactions with the material being studied (Paul Suparno, 1997: 61)
According to Daniswara (2011: 2), in the learning process content plays an important role because it is directly related to the learning process of participants (students). Content is an object of learning that is one of the parameters of elearning success through the type, content and weight of content. An e-learning system must be able to:
- Provide teacher-centered content that is instructional content that is procedural, declarative and well-defined and clear;
- Providing learner-centered content, which is content that presents instructional outcomes focused on developing creativity and maximizing independence;
- Providing work examples on content material to facilitate understanding and provide opportunities for practice;
- Adding content in the form of educational games as a medium for practicing assisting questions.
Each learning method must contain a formulation of organizing learning materials, delivery strategies, and management of activities with regard to learning objectives, learning constraints, student characteristics, so that effectiveness, efficiency and attractiveness of learning can be obtained.
Based on the understanding and function of learning media it can be concluded that learning media is one of the external factors that influences the success of learning activities. In general, the benefits of learning media are to facilitate interaction between teachers and students so that learning activities are more effective and efficient. The success of e-learning is supported by maximum interaction between teacher and students, between students and various learning facilities, between students and other students, and the existence of active learning patterns in this interaction.
Learning evaluation is an indicator tool to assess the achievement of predetermined goals and to assess the overall teaching implementation process. Evaluation not only assesses an activity spontaneously and accidentally, but is an activity to assess something in a planned, systematic, and directed based on clear objectives.
This E-Learning learning method has been able to build a comprehensive and interactive mindset of communication to students, lecturers and the whole academic community and can be used as an alternative learning method because it is felt to be quite effective and efficient both in terms of implementation and evaluation of learning.
Learning methods E-Learning has become a medium of information that can be accessed by the academic community without time, distance and geographical area. The development of learning methods based on e-learning can be well implemented if it is supported by the availability of network facilities and infrastructure that support and the dissemination of these methods to all academic communities.