A. What Is Processor

A processor (CPU) is the logic circuitry that responds to and processes the basic instructions that drive a computer. The term processor is used interchangeably with the term central processing unit (CPU).The CPU is seen as the main and most crucial integrated circuitry (IC) chip in a computer, as it is responsible for interpreting most of computers commands. CPUs will perform most basic arithmetic, logic and Input / Output operations, as well as allocate commands for other chips and components running in a computer.

Currently Intel processors dominate the computer market in the world because almost all PCs or computers use Intel microprocessors. The company is headquartered in Mountain View, California, United States has a major competitor, the AMD Processor company. Until now, the highest generation of processors is the Intel Core i9 which was present in June 2017.

B. Development of Intel processor

Intel processor generation in 1971 – 1981

  • Intel Processor 4004

Intel Processor 4004 Is the first processor made by the Intel company which is still under the IBM company. Processor 404 was first applied to the buscom calculation. Intel 4004 processor has 4 Bit system specifications with 2300 transistors embedded. The starting price of the 4004 processor is $ 200.

  • Intel 8008 processor

1972. Intel claims that the 8008 processor is more sophisticated and 2 times more powerful than the 4004 processor generation. The 8008 processor specifications use an 8-bit system with 3500 transistors and an initial clock speed of 800MHz. although this sophisticated processor is only designed to carry out one task.

  • Intel 8080

In 1974. The change from the previous processor was quite significant because when the previous processor used Multivoltage was changed to Triple Voltage. Using NMOS technology that has more speed than PMOS technology embedded in the previous processor, even Intel claims its ability is 10 times faster than the Intel Processor 8008. the specifications are almost similar to before because it still uses an 8bit system and a transistor planting of 4500 with a clock speed of 2MHz and 3Mhz with memory addressing reaching 64 KiloBytes.

  • Intel 8086 processor and Intel 8088 processor

1978. These two processors were released in 1978, even though this processor was discovered 6 years ago. The processor uses a 16bit system for the first time. Many motherboards do not support 16bit systems because on average they still use 8bit systems, other specifications have 29 thousand transistors and a 5Mhz clock speed. Therefore the Intel Processor 8086 is less attractive to emerging markets. For the sake of winning the hearts of users again, in 1979 re-released an 8-bit processor named Intel Processor 8088. Processor 8088 was then applied to the IBM computer which was the initial milestone of Intel’s success.

Intel processor generation in 1982 – 1989

  • Intel Processor 80286

Intel 286 processor or have the original name 80286. This processor has a 16-bit system that is superior to previous products. This product has an initial clock speed of 6 MHz which has the ability 4 times better than the 8086 generation. Then more advanced came the type of clock speed of 8, 10, 12 Mhz. Embedded 134 thousand transistors.

  • Intel 386DX processor

Released on October 17, 1985. The 386 processor is the world’s first 32bit system. Works on clock speeds of 16, 20 and 33MHz and increases 275 thousand transistors. Actually 386 is a development of 286 with better execution capabilities. Can address up to 4GB of memory so from this first set of chips that meet all the basic requirements of running the Windows and Linux operating systems.

  • Intel 386SX processor

there is a 32bit system while the 386SX is on a 16bit system. This reduction makes his ability faster. Motherboards that support selling well.

  • Intel 486DX processor

Released on April 10, 1989. The presence of the 486 processor is the first processor in the world that provides computer users to access various applications in a practical way. Using a 32bit system, 1.2 million transistors, an initial clock speed of 25MHz. The advantages of a 486 processor that consists of a Match co-processor that helps mathematical data that can reduce the burden on the processor, thus speeding up access faster than its predecessor.

  • Intel Processor 486SX

This processor is an economical version of the 486DX processor so the specifications are lower.

Intel processor generation in 1993 – 1999

  • Intel Pentium

Released on March 22, 1993. The first Intel Pentium processor has twice the capability of the Intel 486DX. Increased capability and width of the system’s jalus increased to 64bit from its predecessor, this processor runs at clock speeds of 60MHz and 66MHz, embedded 3.1 million transistors, P5 microarchitecture.

  • Intel Pentium Pro

Released in 1995. Intel Pentium Pro is widely used for server and workstation systems and is focused on processing data quickly. There are 5.5 million transistors embedded, 200MHz clock speed, 32bit working system, and using P6 Microarchitecture. This processor is the basis for processor development.

  • Intel processor Pentium II

Released in 1997. with the basis of the manufacture of Intel MMX and focused on video, audio, graphics data processing computing. Some sources say that the Pentium II is Pentium Pro with MMX technology embedded. Using a 32Bit work system with P6 architecture, embedded 7.5 million transistors with a clock speed of 300MHz. Installation on the motherboard by way of the memory memory like a ram.

  • Intel Pentium II Xeon

Released in 1998. The Pentium II Xeon processor was made to give birth to the first Pentium II. The difference is that the Xeon appendage is more aimed at server-scale computing.

  • Intel Celeron processor

Released on January 4, 1999. The purpose of making the Intel Celeron Processor is for the designer of a valuable or economical CPU. The base of making Intel Celleron on Pentium II. The 32bit architecture type P6 processor specifications, 7.5 million transistors, have an initial clock speed of 266MHz.

  • Intel Pentium III processor

Released on February 26, 1999. Developed with a number of additions including MMX2 which is enhanced with 70 ember instructions that are useful for enriching high-level graphics capabilities such as 3D, audio treaming, video applications and audio recognition, this processor is also intended for users who like to surf at Internet. Intel Pentium 3 specifications adhere to the 32bit P6 architecture system with 9.5 million transistors embedded in it. The initial clock speed is 600Mhz, and is the processor that started the Gigaherzt era.

  • Intel Pentium III Celeron processor

This processor is intended for server computing. Development of Pentium III with the advantage of processing information from the bus system to the processor very quickly. The Pentium III Xeon processor works well with systems with more sophisticated office or business applications including multimedia and video streaming applications.

Intel processor generation in 2000 – 2009

  1. Intel Pentium 4 processor

Released in 2000. Early emergence Intel Pentium 4 has a speed of 1.5 GHz with 423 form factor, this 32-bit processor has a NetBurst design. It has 42 million transistors. For no reason the Intel changed the Pentium 4 formfactor to 478 which has a speed of 1.3 GHz and changed it again to a speed of 3.4 GHz. The advantages of the Intel Pentium 4 processor are the ability to run heavy applications such as professional filmmaking, the ability to send video-quality TV over the Internet, communication using instant video audio sara, better 3D image rendering activities, convert audio music into an Mp3 player, can run application is compatible with other applications.

  • Intel Pentium Celeron 4 Xeon processor

Released in 2001. Pentium 4 Xeon is more focused on high-performance, medium-sized computers and is focused on server computers. The Pentium 4 Xeon has more legs or pins than the previous generation Pentium 4, this capability is supported by a larger L2 Chace memory.

  • Intel Itanium processor

Released in 2001. Aimed at companies that demand high performance with advanced programs, such as secure e-commerce transactions with large databases, as well as engineering and science programs that are complicated.

  • Intel itanium processor 2

is a product higher than before with Intel’s Explicitly Parralel Instruction Computing (EPIC) technology.

  • Intel Pentium M processor

Released in 2003. The historical carving of the legend of the mobile processor starts from the Pentium M processor. It is a splinter of the centrino mobile technology that is focused on ordinary laptop computers now known as Notebooks or laptops. This processor is a 32bit type with 55 million transistors with an initial 1.7 GHz colck speed. The services of the Intel Pentium M Processor are that the laptop is lighter, compact with the ability to operate longer when using a battery because the Pentium processor has advantages in terms of low power consumption, lower heat output than the Desktop, even the Pentium M processor has comparable Pentium 4 capabilities.

  • Intel E7520 / E7320 Processor

Chipset, released 2004. This processor is a new technology that has the advantage of a dual processor with an 800MHz FSB configuration, DDR2 400 Memory, and support for PCI Express connections (can be for VGA)

  • Intel Pentium D Processor,

Released in 2005. Using a 64bit system with a Netburst microarchitecture and embedded 230 million transistors with an initial clock speed of 2.66 GHz. The initial formation of a Pentium D processor was a market requirement and also a shortage of single-core or single-core processors that had problems with heat and power. Intel gets a breakthrough by combining multiple cores into one processor, better known as the multicore processore. With the presence of a multicore processor, it is expected to increase and heat can be reduced and the power needed can be reduced. This processor uses a 64bit system, with dual core or dual core. The specifications are 1MB L2 cache on each core, 800Mhz FSB, can work at frequencies of 2.8GHz, 3.0GHz, and 3.2GHz. This processor has HyperThreading capability and is divided into 2, Intel Pentium D with 90nm Presscott based core and Cedar Mill 65nm Prester Pentium D based.

  • Intel Core 2 Duo Processor

It is a leap away from Pentium D because of its ability specifically designed for PC users who want more than a computer. This processor has 2 cores with a configuration of 2.4GHz demham 8MB L2 Chace (up to 4MB that can be accessed per core), FSB Line (Front Side Bus) 1.06GHz, and Thermal Design Power (TDP).

  • Intel Core Solo and Core Duo Processor

Introduced in 2006. It is a 32bit system processor, the beginning of its appearance has two variants namely Intel Core Solo and Core Duo. Basically this processor is a development of Pentium M, because the Intel Core solo and Core Duo are used for mobile PCs or laptops. Using a more sophisticated P6 architecture.

  • Intel Core 2 Processor

Introduced in 2006, the 64bit processor system has 291 million transistors with the lowest clock speed of 1.8 GHz. Core microarchitecture based.

  • Intel Pentium Dual Core Processor

Introduced 2007, still with a 64-bit system with a core microarchitecture which has 160 million transistors with an initial clock speed of 2.2 GHz. This is an economical processor that is above the Intel Celeron but under Core 2. Pentium Dual Core was once a popular choice for overclocking at a low cost.

  • Intel Core 2 Duo Processor

Introduced in 2008. Using a 64-bit system still uses 64-bit Microarchitecture with embedded 410 million transistors with the lowest 2.4GHz clock speed.

  • Intel Core 2 Quad Processor

Introduced in 2008 together with core 2 duo. Still using a 64bit system with Core microarchitecture but has more transistors, namely 820 million transistors with the lowest clock speed of 2.4 GHz. It’s still a family with Core 2. Intel’s first Quad Core processor.

  • Intel Atom Processor

It is an Intel Pentium Dual Core lineup and was introduced in 2008. Embedded 41 million transistors with the lowest clock speed of 1.86GHz. Intel Atom processor is very popular to be used on laptop laptops with a screen size of 10 inches, devoted to the performance is not heavy and entry level user.

Intel processor generation in 2009-2017

  • Intel Core Processor i3

There are no different classes, namely entry level or lower class Intel Core i3, mid-level mid-level Intel Core i5 class, and the highest high-level Intel Core i7 class, since 2017 this core i line is added with Intel Core i7, Intel Core i9.

  • Intel Core i5 Processor

The middle class processor in the Core i line has 4 cores. Has the ability above Intel Core i3 that there are features of HyperTreading and Turbo Boost. Turbo Boost is the ability of the processor to do work above the performance of the processor but is still in a reasonable stage because it is set by the processor maker. Because of this Hyper Treading feature the ability of the middle class Core i5 can handle heavy applications.

  • Intel Core i7 Processor

The highest-generation Core processor before the Core i9 generation appears. Core i7 is the most complete processor because it is equipped with technology above core i5 and core i3. Improved computer performance, making computers more energy efficient and produce a much better picture quality. Core i7 Processor has two core variants namely 2 core and 4 core. Core i7 2 core has hyperthreading so it will read the system into 4 core and 4MB cache. Whereas the 4 core version will read the system into 8 cores and Chace 6MB – 8MB. All series from Intel Core i7 have hyperthreading and turbo boost capabilities.


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