Basically, the biometric system is a scanning technology that serves to recognize and identify physiological characteristics in humans that are often used as safety devices. Biometrics (derived from the Greek bios which means life and metron which means to measure) in general is the study of measurable biological characteristics. In the world of information technology, biometrics is relevant to the technology used to analyze physical and human behavior in authentication.

Biometric identifiers are very typical, measurable characteristics are used to identify individuals. Two categories of biometric identifiers include physiological and behavioral characteristics. Physiologial characteristics relate to body shape, and include but are not limited to: fingerprints, facial recognition, DNA, palms, hand geometry, iris recognition (which has largely been replaced by the retina), and odor / aroma. Behavioral characteristics are related to a person’s behavior, including but not limited to: Rhythm of typing, gait, and voice.

Biometrics offers a variety of techniques that can be used in different sectors, from state security to individual comfort. This technology is commonly used in the forensic identification, identity management, and biometric access control sectors in both private and public institutions. The effectiveness of this technology is closely related to the use of data processing. Data is stored in files to enable fast and reliable identification, which can guarantee comfort and security. The best known techniques include fingerprints, facial recognition, irises, palms and DNA based recognition. Current research even allows for new biometric techniques, such as ear shape or facial thermography.

Whatever the method, this technique has similarities in gathering characteristics;
• universal, because it can be found in all individuals
• unique, because it makes it possible to distinguish one individual from another individual
• permanent, allowing change over time
• can be recorded, because individual characteristics cannot be collected without their consent
• measurable, allows for future comparisons

To improve safety and accuracy, multimodal biometrics combines several biometric sources. Multimodal biometric systems usually require two biometric credentials for positive identification such as faces and fingerprints, and not just one. This system is able to overcome the limitations commonly found in unimodal systems.

Types of Biometric Technology

At least there are several types of biometric technology that are adapted to function to identify physical characteristics of humans or their behavior as follows:

Fingerprint recognition

This type of machine is often and very widely used for access to a control room and attendance machine. This system uses a scanner called a scanner and the software. The scanner will record the fingerprint pattern that is pasted and then stored in the template. This machine will compare new fingerprints with previously recorded memory. Where this information will be used to authenticate people at a later time. Each finger consists of a unique line pattern. The fingerprint scanner does not capture all fingerprints; instead, they record small details about fingerprints called minutiae. For example, the scanner will select a point on the fingerprint and then record what the pattern / curve looks like at that point, where it is headed, and so on. By selecting several of these points, this scanner can be very accurate. Although minutiae identification is not the only factor that is suitable for fingerprint comparisons, it is a major feature used in fingerprint scanning systems. The amount of minutiae in a fingerprint can vary, but a high-quality fingerprint scanner can contain between 60 and 80 minutiae. A biometric system can identify fingerprints from the pattern of flow curves; number of curves; type, direction and location of key points; and the location of pores on the fingers. Given the simple and widespread use of this technology, fingerprint scanning is the most widely used biometric technology today. One important point to remember is that there are many vulnerabilities in the fingerprint authentication process which make it not completely secure. This vulnerability can occur during the scanning process, the process of transferring and storing fingerprint scanning data. In a relatively simple way, unauthorized people can gain access to the fingerprint scanning system. The scanner may be fooled by just blowing the scanner surface because fingerprints are still stored on the scanner, or it can also use artificial fingers from wax.

Face recognition

Face recognition machine has the function of identifying the face shape and its position. The camera mounted on the machine will capture the face image to be scanned and the software in it will sort through the information, then the system inside will compare the new face shape with the memory pattern of the face shape that has been previously saved. Although FR technology does not come easily and cheaply in its research and development, it is possible for computer processing nowadays. Therefore Face Recognition can replace Finger Print, magnetic, barcode, proximity, palm reader etc. The superiority of FR is clearly extraordinary. From testing of 1200 employees in our database, the average detection time is only about 0.2 seconds per face. This means that a single device, can detect up to 30-40 employees per minute. Compare with fingerprint technology which is only about 4-6 fingers per minute. FR technology is run without touching it, which means that employee absences are carried out without touching the device at all. Therefore reducing carelessness and human movement to get to the device.

Voice recognition

As the name suggests, this machine captures the sound received by the speaker and is processed based on the nature of the language. The accuracy of this machine can be affected by noise or noise and also changes in a person’s voice caused by illness or fatigue so that no sound can be issued normally. Sealin these factors, this system also has another weakness that is susceptible to fraud in the form of sound counterfeiting conducted by others who have the same type of vote.

Iris recognition

According to research, the retinal scanning machine or iris is the safest machine because each layer of the veins behind the eyes of each person is different from one another. But capturing images and patterns of the retina is very difficult because one must focus or focus on a point and must be able to hold it for a few seconds so the camera can capture images of the retina properly. After the retina image is captured, the machine will process the verification of data with those previously stored with a high degree of accuracy. In retinal recognition technology infrared light is usually used with low power. This is to prevent damage to the retina. The infrared ray is used to illuminate the blood vessels in the retina. The advantage of using infrared light is, it turns out that after doing research, blood vessels in the retina more quickly “absorb” infrared light than other parts around it, so that the blood vessels that form unique patterns reflect more infrared light and this reflection is captured by the scanner and the pattern as a pattern.


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