WHAT IS BIOMETRIC?

Currently the common technology for recognizing someone in the digital world is a pair of user IDs and passwords. This technology is felt to have many shortcomings so that lately there is a tendency to use other better security systems. One of the security that is considered the most accurate is the biometric system. Biometric devices have an authentication method that is commonly used, namely by recognizing people from their physical characteristics. Various aspects of humans such as physiology, chemistry or actual behavior can be used for biometric authentication. This method is applied to the world of information technology for the authentication process or as a password to get access rights. There are six biometrics commonly used for self-recognition systems, including: fingerprints, iris, face, voice, hand geometry, and signature. These characteristics are unique to one another.

In other words, biometrics is a method of human identification based on one or more parts of the human body or behavior of humans, by statistically analyzing its characteristics.

USES

The uses of biometrics are numerous, such as for ATMs, shops and ticket vending machines that only recognize and apply to their owners with or without a card / pin, personal identification for credit card verification without using a credit card, internet access and computer log-in control , a security system for verification of passports, tickets and baggage, a portable system for the introduction of individuals in the police, a secret system for protection of databases and records and so forth. Bometrik also has the advantage of being used in verification because it cannot be lost or forgotten, difficult to duplicate, share or transfer, authenticity is guaranteed because it must present individuals as a validation tool.

SEJARAH

Biometrics have been around since 29,000 BC when cavemen will sign their pictures with their palms. In 500 BC, Babylonian business transactions had signed on clay sheets in the form of fingerprints. The first time cataloging fingerprints began in 1891 when Juan Vucetich began to collect fingerprint collections of criminals in Argentina.

Accuracy of biometric implementation

Biometric technology will provide a significant increase in the accuracy of identifying a person’s identity and can be adapted in any application related to electronic government services.

Method of proving authenticity

A form of authentication method that is strong and inherent to the provisions of electronic governance, such as biometric technology, is an inherent need for identification. Related to and dependent on the effectiveness of the use of electronic government services and the effectiveness of the identification process.

Fingerprints are a natural characteristic of humans used in personal identification for a long time. Even ordinary people often assume the finger is a synonym for biometrics. Fingerprints consisting of ridge and valley patterns, which are unique to each individual, even for twins.

The fingerprint biometrics system is the most widely used biometric based authentication system today because it tends to have a high degree of accuracy and is easy to implement. Today there is a lot of hardware on the market using fingerprint security. One of the most is a presence system with a fingerprint. Even this biometric security has also penetrated into the note book. For example, the IBM ThinkPad T42 uses fingerprint security on the wrist base supported by a number of devices in a notebook called the Embedded Security Subsystem. Recently Hawlet Packard also followed using the same technology for its laptop.

Fingerprints of every human being have a special code, which is in the form of distinctive lines on each individual. Fingerprints are most widely used by digital imaging of the human finger. 3-dimensional imaging is better than 2-dimensional imaging. Namely by placing, sliding or directing a finger on the screen / screen or using a mouse that can read fingerprints. The results of such imaging are typical digital data.

Advantages:

– Will not interfere, small error factor and accuracy of measuring power.

– Does not require large array representation.

–           Cheaper.

Deficiency:

– If the finger has cuts or burns, it will affect the performance of this tool.

– Fingerprints of people who work in the chemical industry are often affected. Therefore company

     It should not use finger print authentication mode.

– Sweep movements can leave traces and be visible on the sensor surface.

– More difficult to use

– Not very accurate.

Security with the Palm

This system works on the principle of the uniqueness of the arteries of the palms of each individual, even on conjoined twins. The system has sensors that can recognize the pattern of a person’s palm during deoxidized hemoglobin or red blood cells by actively flowing through blood vessels. In other words, only the palm of a living person can be detected. One vendor that has produced this device is PT Fujitsu Systems. Recently, PT Fujitsu Systems Indonesia launched the touchless reader authentication device.

Palm vein, thus the name of the technology, is a biometric security technology that can identify a person from the veins of the palm of the hand without touching. Palm vein authentication technology utilizes the uniqueness of deoxidized hemoglobin in the palm of the hand. This palm vein device captures the image of the palm of the hand by emitting a type of infrared beam.

Deoxidized hemoglobin in the palm of the hand will absorb it. Thus reducing reflection and causing blood vessels to look like black patterns. Vascular patterns are then verified against patterns that have been registered to identify a person.

Advantages:

– Blood vessels are located in the body and have so many different patterns, so the falsification of identity becomes very difficult, obviously this allows a very high level of security.

– Simple, relatively easy to use and inexpensive

– Geometry data is easier to collect, unlike fingerprints where needed

    good skin friction by the imaging system, and retinal data where special lighting is needed.

– Environmental factors, such as dry weather which causes skin drying does not give a problem

– Usually considered no more disturbing than with fingerprints and retina.

Deficiency

– Hand geometry is not typical and cannot be used in identification systems.

– Not ideal for growing children.

– Accessories on hand (rings, etc.) can cause changes in extracting geometric information

    hand.

– The size of hand geometry biometric data is large and is not ideal for use in embedded

    systems.

Security With Face

The facial expression in its characterization uses an infrared signal heat scan tool to identify the facial shape characteristics. Face recognition system as a key (password) uses the expression of someone who is not made up (dramatic) or in other words relaxed face. Psychologists classify these facial expressions, universally into 6 (six) forms, namely: happines, sadness, disgust, anger, surprise and fear. From these six facial expressions, a system that can understand and communicate can be built. The facial expression analysis system emphasizes six universal expressions, based on facial movements and muscle activity.

A face detection system consisting of six parts of the point is considered the most trustworthy to use. This part consists of points: eyes, mouth and eyebrows. However, the distance between parts of the eye is not enough to be obtained directly from the face point, for that we need a form of method in the eye area. The other part is the mouth, this globally is not enough to describe the shape of the mouth. Therefore to get this part, we need a part of the face that is normalized based on the edges of the mapping.

From the explanation above, to recognize the parts of the point, a supervised vector quantization approach can be used.

Advantages:

– Non intrusive.

– The technology is low cost.

Deficiency:

– 2D recognition is influenced by changes in lighting, one’s hair, age, and if

   someone wearing glasses.

– Requires camera equipment in its identification, therefore it is not possible to

   became popular, until many PCs included cameras as standard equipment.

Pengamanan Dengan Retina

The human eye’s retina is protected and protected from the outside environment. The eye has physiological properties, has a size, sharpness of reaction to different light and will react to light and natural movements / vibrations to prevent changes in the image or other subjects that lead to the eye. One part of the human body that is unique and can be used as a security medium is the retina of the eye because in it there are iris or iris. The location of the iris is between the cornea and the lens of the eye. The iris itself will be seen by the naked eye from outside the eye and has a certain pattern.

From the patterns held by this rainbow membrane, it turns out that everyone has a unique pattern. Besides being unique, this pattern also has a high consistency and stability for many years without undergoing changes. From this condition, the eye experts propose that this iris can be used as a fingerprint for one’s personal identity.

Iris recognition uses a rainbow membrane that is digitally coded and then used as a key. The authentication process requires two stages namely the identification stage and the verification stage. This process can be done one-to-many (1: m) or one-to-one (1: 1).

The one-to-many process will involve a database containing the user id and iris templates on each id. The capture process will proceed with searching the database to find a matching iris template. While the one-to-one process will be more on comparing the two slices, namely the results of the scan and the template slices that have been saved.

Of these two processes, of course, the one-to-one process is preferred because the process is faster. This is caused by comparisons made on a limited scale.

This security system works by scanning the human retina at a certain distance, and has the ability to read one person per second. In addition, this product also reads the human retina to ensure it is alive.

Kelebihan:

– Is a biometric identification that is very accurate.

– Retinal patterns are unique and very difficult to imitate.

– Very few False Acceptance Rate and False Rejection Rate.

Deficiency:

– For people affected by diabetes, the eyes can be affected so that the difference.

– Requires close contact with the user’s eyes, so it is very disturbing for the user.

– Requires users to take off their glasses before scanning.

Sound

Distinctive and unique human voice, can distinguish between one human with another human being seen from the difference in frequency, intonation of sound because there are no exactly the same type of sound. Aspects that can be compared are the basic sounds coming out of the nose, Adam’s apple movements, rhythm, sound level, frequency and duration.

Advantages:

– Non intrusive. High social acceptance.

– Verification time is about five seconds.

– Technology that is inexpensive.

Deficiency:

– A person’s voice can be easily recorded and used for an unauthorized PC or network.

– Low accuracy.

– Due to age, a person’s voice can be different. Also because people have diseases such as colds or colds

  throat infection, can change a person’s voice, so the identification process becomes difficult or difficult

  not even possible. Therefore this verification method cannot be implemented at any time.

Signature

Signature, by using a special board and pen where the user writes the signature, by characterizing not comparing the shape of the signature, but comparing the movement (direction) and pressure on the pen when writing. One can imitate signatures but it is difficult to imitate exactly the way (dynamic movements and pressure rhythm) when making signatures.

Advantages:

– Non intrusive.

– A little verification time (about five seconds).

– Cheap technology.

Deficiency:

– Signature verification is designed to verify the subject based on the signature characteristics of each

   each unique. As a result, someone who does the signature in an inconsistent way

   might have difficulty registering and verifying signatures.

– Average error: 1 in 50.

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