Let’s for a moment we know in advance what surgery is in the world of medicine. Surgical operations performed by a doctor in a hospital require technology and medical devices, especially to be able to assist and facilitate all forms of surgical processes in order to provide the best results for patients who want to be operated on. Surgery, according to Wikipedia, is derived from the English words Surgery and Greek, Cheirourgia, which means Handwork. Surgery or surgery is a specialty in the field of medicine that can treat diseases or wounds with manual and instrument surgery. Surgeon Surgeon can be a doctor, dentist or veterinarian who specializes in the fields of surgery and anatomy. Talking about surgery, means we talk about how a doctor performs surgery to see the depth of the body by surgery, or cutting related body parts to be able to perform medical operations or also to follow up on matters related to the removal of a disease or other suffered by a patient and can be various kinds other possible patient needs.

The future of surgical operations provides a great open relationship between humans and technology, which can develop the level of precision and efficiency of surgical operations with a very high possibility and can provide the best expected results for patients. Various questions that often arise is whether we might have a small surgical robot capable of exploring the depth of the body? or maybe also whether one day we can see a robot can enter and exit the patient’s organs easily and provide the best results for patients in need? maybe this is some of the questions we need to underline because day by day, surgical technology is not complicated if we look at it because the magnitude of the impact of this new digital technology trend has given more and more development of the surgical technology itself. Things like that are not impossible, because if we flasback and look at its history in ancient Egypt, doctors at that time had carried out invasive surgery with improvised work equipment and it has been going on since 3,500 years ago until now. And in this century we can see that there have been many amazing modes of development of surgical technology, therefore the writing in this article becomes a reading that can provide an overview of the advances in surgical technology that are increasingly changing from time to time.

Recently in an article written by Dr. Mesko Bartalan in Medical Futurist [1], described various technological developments that can facilitate the surgical process. NASA has worked with an American medical company, Virtual Incision [2] to develop a robot that can be placed inside a patient’s body and then remotely controlled by a surgeon. At this point, we can see that technology is very helpful in the process of surgery, where surgery can be done remotely by a surgeon. However, this can also allow a new paradigm and other assumptions that in the future with the development of surgical technology and artificial intelligence in a surgical robot can replace the existence of a surgeon who in this case is a doctor. The reality is not necessarily the case because after all the Surgeon is really needed to be able to support and direct more detail about what actions need to be taken to a patient by using the feelings and a sense of humanity. So the assumption that the existence of technology can replace a doctor and surgeon cannot be justified and in general the presence of technology aims to facilitate an activity and effective results on the life around not instead of replacing or closing the space of interaction between people and technology.

Here are some technologies that will have a major impact on the future of surgical operations.
1) Virtual Reality

For the first time in medical history, in April 2016, cancer surgeon Dr. Shafi Ahmed performed surgery using a Virtual Reality camera at the Royal London Hospital [3]. This is a big step for surgery. Everyone can participate in the operation in real time through the VR website and in the OR app, which is an application that can connect in real time to a surgical operation process.

This can open new horizons for medical education today and for the training of surgeons. VR can enhance teaching and learning experiences in medicine to a new level. At present, only a few students can see a surgeon directly during surgery. In this way, it can challenge us to learn it. By using VR, surgeons can stream and see live globally and allow medical students to really be in the Operation Room using their VR glasses. The Body VR team [4] creates educational VR content and simulations that can help and support the medical education process for surgeon specialties.
2) Augmented Reality

Since there is a lot of confusion about VR (Virtual Reality) and AR (Augmented Reality), allow this article to try to explain it in simple language. AR differs in terms of features with VR. AR users make it possible not to lose contact with reality, while VR puts information into sight as quickly as possible and this allows for imperfect vision. With these characteristics, it has great potential in helping surgeons become more efficient in surgery. Whether they are performing minimally invasive procedures or looking for tumors in the liver, AR health applications can help save lives and treat patients smoothly.

 
As you might expect, the AR market is currently busy. More and more are appearing on the surface, promising a Start Up innovation, such as the company Atheer [5] developing a cloud-based Aero application that can be used and supported by Android to increase productivity, collaboration, and output in the medical world. The precise 3D medical visualization system of EchoPixel [6] also allows doctors to interact with patient-specific organs and tissues in an open 3D space. This allows the doctor to immediately identify it and provide the diagnosis correctly and quickly.
3) Robotics surgery

Robotic surgery is a marvel of technology for surgical operations that is very amazing in this century. According to market analysis, this industry will explode. In 2020 to 2030, sales of surgical robotics are estimated to nearly double to approximately $ 6.4 billion [7] in a significant period of time.

The best known surgical robot is the Da Vinci Surgical System [8], and believe it or not, the device was introduced 15 years ago with various deficiencies and its development continues today. There are many things offered by this robotic surgery technology, one of which is the feature of a high-definition 3D vision system that can make it possible to be able to magnify the appearance of images. Then other features when the surgery is performed, this robot is equipped with a wrist instrument that is sized and in accordance with the anatomy of the human hand, then can also bend and rotate so that during surgery the doctor will see a picture of surgery that is far more precise and good and facilitate the operation of the patient. With the Da Vinci Surgical System, the surgeon operates only through a few small incisions. The surgeon is 100% in control of the robotic system at any time, and he can perform surgeries more precisely than previously thought due to the system of resolution and accuracy offered on his robotics machine.

4) Minimally Invasive Surgery

Laparoscopic surgery, also known as key hole surgery or minimally invasive surgery, can reduce trauma to the body caused by conventional open surgery, because the incisions are made much smaller. This efficient procedure is carried out using sophisticated laparoscopic equipment that is inserted through 3-4 small sized hole-sized incisions. The surgeon will be able to see enlarged and detailed images of the internal organs by inserting a device to see through these incisions. After the procedure is complete, the small incisions are stitched, and will leave minimal visible scar tissue. Laparoscopic surgery can be used for diagnostic purposes and laparoscopic techniques are used in various operations and procedures. Minimally invasive surgery can be performed using robotic surgery where the surgeon controls the robot from a console. The high definition 3D camera allows a better view of the operating area and the flexibility of the robot’s hand gives the surgeon more precision and control. Minimally Invasive Surgery can be done from Head to Foot [11]

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