Computer comes from the Greek, which is “computare” which is a combination of the words “com” and “putare” which means to think of calculations. In English that is “to compute” which means to count. A computer is a device used to process data. The word “computer” was originally used for someone whose job was to count with or without using tools. Broadly speaking, a computer is an electronic device in which there are several components that work together to produce information based on existing programs and data. Existing components in a computer include: CPU, Keyboard, monitor layer, mouse and printer (component complement).
When discussing its functions, computers can help humans in solving problems that cannot be solved, because until now, computers have been very sophisticated, so computers become multitasking and run several tasks at the same time. Computer has 4 main functions, which are receiving input, processing input, storing input, and also presenting output.
Inventor of Computers
Charles Babbage, was the first person known to the world as one of the discoverers of the first computer history. Babbage is known as the father of the computer. The calculating machine he made was Difference Engine No. 1 His discovery has been very useful for human life until now. To appreciate the service for his discovery of the computer world, his name was used for The Charles Babbage Foundation.
Computers have evolved from generation to generation to experience rapid changes. Until now, the development of computers has been very sophisticated. Both in terms of size, computer design, and operating system. In its development, computers experienced 5 generations, which are as follows.
- First Generation Computers
The main characteristic of the first generation of computers is the presence of vacuum tubes as signal amplifiers. Initially, the vacuum tube was used as a signal amplifier component. Because it has a lot of weaknesses from its raw material, glass, this vacuum tube can easily channel heat and break easily. To neutralize the heat other components function as a cooler.
The first computer that was made and can be used for all things versatile, namely named ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer). At ENIAC there are 18,800 vacuum tubes and weighing 30 tons. The length of the ENIAC computer is 30 meters with a height of 2.4 meters and requires 174 kilowatts of electrical power.
Other examples of computers in the first generation are MARK II, EDSAC, MARK III, ADVAC, IBM 650, UNIVAC I and II.
a. Requires a large place and large size
b. Much heat emits so it requires a lot of coolant
c. The capacity to store data is small
d. The process is relatively slow
2. Second Generation Computers
A very important change occurred in the second generation. The second generation of computers was marked by the discovery of transistors which replaced the function of the vacuum tubes used on the first computer. Transistors are small electronic components that work by utilizing electrons or charge streams in crystalline solids.
This second generation computer is not only utilized by companies, but also for agencies, universities and also the government. The second generation computer has replaced the position of machine language with assembly language. And assembly language is a language that uses singacatan instead of binary code. The program that has been run is stored in the computer and the programming language in it provides flexibility to the computer.
Computers in the second generation also have their own storage systems. That is, the main memory capacity can be of. Magnetic Core Storage and uses external storage forms, in the form of Magnetic Tape and Magnetic Disk.
Characteristic features :
a. The electronic component of the transistor
b. Becomes the starting point for the discovery of a mini computer.
c. The size is relatively small
d. The program is made with Assembly Language, Common Business-Oriented Language (COBOL) and Formula Translator (FORTRAN) and ALGOL
e. Not much heat
f. The process is relatively faster
g. Does not require electrical voltage for the previous generation
3. Third Generation Computers
Third-generation computers are developments that go through very rapid stages of the development of existing computers. Although transistors in many ways outperform vacuum tubes, transistors generate considerable heat, which can potentially damage the internal parts of the computer.
Then one of the scientists named Jack Billy, tried to re-do research and develop integrated circuits (IC: integrated circuit) in 1958. IC combines three electronic components in a small silicon disk made of quartz sand.
In this third generation the history of computer technology Integrated Circuit (IC) became one of the main features. The scientists then succeeded in inserting more components into a single chip called a semiconductor. As a result, computers become smaller because components can be compacted on a chip.
Characteristic features :
a. Its size is smaller than the second generation of computers
b. The electronic components of an Integrated Circuit (IC) in the form of plates or chips
c. Begin to recognize Multi Programming and Multi Processing
d. The process is very fast
e. The program is made with high level languages (High Level Language), namely: BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL
f. Capacity to store larger data
g. The process is very fast
4. Fourth Generation Computers
Microprocessor is a typical fourth generation computer that is the compaction of thousands of ICs into a chip. Since 1970 there have been two developments that are considered to be the 4th generation computers. The first is the use of Large Scale Integration (LSI) which can be called by the name of Bipolar Large Large Scale Integration.
LSI is a compaction of thousands of ICs, which are put together on an IC chip that we can call by the name of the chip. The term mention of chip is used to denote a rectangular shaped plate containing an integrated IC circuit. LSI was further developed into VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) which can accommodate tens of thousands or even hundreds of thousands of ICs.
Then developed again into a micro computer, which uses semiconductors and microprocessors in the form of chips. As a temporary internal computer memory, while the previous generation only uses magnetic core storage.
Characteristic features :
a. The size is relatively smaller
b. Get to know the DataBase Management System (DBMS).
c. The program is made in languages: BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL, PASCAL
d. The electronic component of miniaturization is called LSI and begins to introduce VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) which is an alloy of ICs with a circuit capacity of up to 100,000 components per chip.
e. Already implementing Multi Programming and Multi Processing
f. Started to develop a local computer network using ARCNET (Attach Research Computing Network)
5. Fifth Generation Computers
The fifth generation computer is often called the next generation of computers. This generation is marked by the emergence of: LSI (Large Scale Integration) which is the compacting of thousands of microprocessors into a microprocessor. In addition, it was also marked by the emergence of semi conductors and microprocessors.
The companies that make micro-processors include: Intel Corporation, Motorola, Zilog and others. In the market we can see the presence of microprocessors from Intel with models 4004, 8088, 80286, 80386, 80486, and Pentium.
In the Pentium generation, in addition to the special features of improving the performance of data access speeds and also display images have a resolution (image quality) is good and colorful and multimedia also support, and more importantly is the function of computer components to be smarter.
In this fifth generation, development efforts have been made called Josephson Junction, technology that can replace the chip. That can have the ability to process trillions of operatives per second, while chip technology can only process billions of operations per second.
This extraordinary trait can be called “Artificial Intelligence”, but also based on GUI (Graphic User Interface), multicommunication and multimedia. The images that are displayed become smoother and sharper, in addition to the speed of processing, sending or receiving images also become faster.
Characteristic features :
a. More and more features
b. The program is made in PROLOG (Programming Logic) and LISP (List Processor) languages
c. The fifth generation of computers is focused on AI (Artificial Intelligence / Artificial Intelligence), which is something related to the use of computers to carry out tasks that are analogous to human behavior.
d. Can process images and graphics in the same way with word processing, for example, can see and understand a photo.
e. Much faster information processing
f. The electronic component uses the most recent form of the VLSI chip
g. This generation of computers is still in the development stage and there aren’t many users yet.