The role of wireless technology has a profound impact on current developments, and has been applied throughout the world. With this technology, of course, facilitate the activities of everyone in everyday life. For example, the technology shift from 3G to 4G in Indonesia in December 2015, and after a few months ago, the number of 4G technology users has reached 20 million. Now, the world is starting to get ready with the technology that will come later, namely 5G. In Indonesia, the largest number of internet users is in Java, which was 52 million in 2014. In this paper, the main focus is how to implement key technologies in radio transmission systems in West Java. This paper aims to analyze the potential of radio transmission research by looking at the challenges and opportunities by analyzing strength, weakness, opportunity, threats (SWOT) to anticipate the presence of 5G technology.
A. 5G Technology Vision
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU) is an international organization established to regulate international radio and telecommunications, which has issued recommendations ITU-R M.2083-0 about its vision for 2020 and thereafter set forth in the International Mobile Telecommunications program in 2020 and beyond (IMT -2020). Some program plans that will be incorporated in 5G technology include: Enhanced Mobile Broadband (trying to improve the ability of mobile broadband in handling human-centric use cases for accessing multimedia content, services, and data); Ultra-reliable and low latency communications (several requirements are needed such as good throughput, low latency and high availability), and Massive machine type communications (characterized by the connection of large numbers of devices with sensitive data transmission without delay at relatively low volumes)
In order to determine the technological foundation for the 5G system, a project has been initiated under the name Mobile and wireless communications Enablers for the Twenty-twenty Information Society (METIS), which is an approach to 5G technology. The main objective of the METIS project is to respond to social challenges towards 2020 by providing a basis for communication and strengthening the foundation for mobile access and wireless communication.
Development of 5G Technology
5G technology consists of a wireless packet switched system, which uses orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) with wide area coverage, high throughput on millimeter waves (10 mm to 1 mm) that covers a frequency range of 30 GHz to 300 GHz, thus enabling speeds data of 20 Mbps to a distance of 2 km. 5G stands for 5th Generation, which makes it possible to use mobile phones with greater bandwidth, also using improved data coding techniques. 5G uses smart antenna techniques to support higher data rates and coverage.
B. 5G Radio Frequency Submission Wave Millimeter (mmWave) Technology
Millimeter waves are located at 30-300 GHz frequency, which has advantages for future wireless mobile communication applications, namely:
• Provides greater bandwidth
• Because of less bandwidth in the millimeter range, it is more beneficial for the development of smaller cells.
• Coverage is not limited to line of sight (LOS) conditions
• The channel sounding feature
• The antenna size is physically small
• Dynamic beamforming is used so as to avoid path loss
• Supports up to 400-meter multi-gigabit backhaul and cellular access up to 200-300 meters.
In addition to its advantages, mmWave on 5G also has disadvantages, namely:
• Millimeter waves pass through different attenuation such as penetration, rain attenuation etc., which limits the coverage conditions of the mm wave distance in the deployment of 5G mobile cellular
• Only supports LOS propagation conditions
• Leaves attenuation is very significant
• Higher power consumption, because there are more RF modules as there are more antennas
Smart antenna systems (smart antennas) can distinguish the desired signal and interference interference channels. Smart antenna systems have the ability to change radiation patterns to react to changing environments so as to increase the capacity and S / N of wireless systems. Another benefit of smart antennas is that the effect of multipath is overcome by suppressing unwanted users and maximizing the beam beam towards the desired angle. This system includes the Beam Switch Antenna and the Adaptive Array Antenna.
M-MIMO is the development of MIMO technology. With M-MIMO, spectrum efficiency can be increased 20 times by using 256 antennas on the sender and receiver side compared to a system with 4 antennas.
C. Prior Research in the Country
According to Atmaja (2015), Indonesia needs to map the 5G key requirements according to the conditions. Regarding technology issues, it is certain that Indonesia will not be able to compete with developed countries if the new research starts now, but if it is related to specific conditions in Indonesia then it can be input in international forums.
D. Challenges and Opportunities for Research in Domestic 5G Radio Transmission
The mmWave challenges include:
• Higher propagation and penetration losses (including losses due to users’ hands)
• At higher frequencies the device’s power consumption increases due to decreased power amplifier (PA) power efficiency and the number of antenna elements (Pais, 2016)
• Also how is the design suitable for this wave frequency for the M-MIMO RF / antenna sub system
3D Beamforming Smart Antenna
Beam on the antenna array transmit pattern can be adjusted (beamforming) according to design. The challenges and opportunities are how to design a simpler block diagram with the complexity of the system trade-offs and the adaptive algorithm to be chosen.
M-MIMO is a solution to improve cell efficiency, especially for the application of small cells. Challenges as well as research opportunities in M-MIMO include channel models and estimation, energy saving techniques and hardware architecture.
The goal of network management is that all users can have the full availability of 10 Gbps with almost no latency.
Spectrum allocation above 6 GHz
The challenges in using spectrum above 6 GHz, namely the choice of frequency and bandwidth as well as the use of high-order beamforming in addressing high pathloss attenuation
Impact on End-Users
5G technology presents challenges as well as research opportunities where networks and end points must be able to support the speed of existing data.
Energy Harvesting Needs
The problem that will be faced in the application of 5G technology is the problem of energy source efficiency. Therefore, the technique of generating energy harvesting is a solution to the problem of the current energy resource crisis, because it is a renewable energy source (renewable energy), which can be generated by the Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) system.
This research was conducted based on the process of tracking, analyzing, imaging, deciding, acting (TAIDA), also by paying attention to the analysis of Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, Threats (SWOT)
In Indonesia, particularly in West Java, the key technology of 5G radio transmission research and its implementation opportunities is the Smart Antenna system with 3D beamforming capability, MM-MIMO, mmWave Wave Frequency study, spectrum allocation engineering above 6 GHz, network management, handset technology including mobile applications, modeling and simulation as well as energy harvesting technology.
Government support is needed in the use of ICT products in the country by encouraging the development of the ICT industry through the Domestic Component Level (TKDN) policy, especially in the production of handsets and mobile applications with unique features of Indonesia or the West Java region to create economies of scale.
Various opportunities and challenges that arise from several key technologies of 5G radio transmission will only be meaningful if supported by regulations that increasingly favor ICT research and innovation based on local wisdom, increasingly diverse sources of research funding providers, the speed of funds reaching researchers and the increasing patterns of collaboration between researchers , became the driving force behind the success of radio transmission research for the adoption of 5G technology and its successor technology.